# 8 States

Use this domain for general words refer to the state or condition of something.

Louw Nida Codes:
13A State
• What general words refer to the state or condition of something?
state, condition, shape, position,
• What words indicate the state that something is in?
be, fare, stand,
• # 8.1 Quantity

Use this domain for general words referring to the amount or quantity of something.

OMC Codes:
800 Numbers and Measures
Louw Nida Codes:
59 Quantity
• What words refer to the amount of something?
amount, quantity, level, volume, percentage, proportion, sum, how much, (\$100) worth,
• What words refer to the amount of something that can be counted?
number, how many, numbers, ratio,
• What words refer to the amount of food that someone is given?
portion, helping, serving, intake, ration, measure,
• What words refer to a measured amount of something?
• What words refer to the amount of something, such as fuel, that is available to be used?
pool, stock, reserves,
• What words refer to the amount of medicine that a sick person needs?
dose, dosage,
• What words refer to the amount of a problem such as crime or damage?
extent, incidence, level, rate,
• # 8.1.1 Number

Use this domain for words related to numbers. Every language has a word for 'one', and a word for 'two'. These two numbers often have special words. So we have included a separate domain for 'one' and 'two'. In addition the numbers form a series (one, two, three...). Most languages have more than one series of numbers (first, second, third...). So we have also included a domain for each series of numbers that most languages have. Your language may have other series of numbers. Put them in the domain 'Number series'.

OMC Codes:
801 Numerology
802 Numeration
Louw Nida Codes:
60 Number
60A Number, Countless
• What words refer to a written number?
number, figure, digit, numeral,
• What words refer to a number of people or things?
toll, statistics,
• What words describe different kinds of numbers?
even, odd, positive, negative, infinite, cardinal, ordinal, whole, fraction, decimal,
• What words refer to writing numbers on a series of things?
number (v), numbered,
• What words indicate that there are a particular number of something?
number (v),
• # 8.1.1.1 Cardinal numbers

Use this domain for words related to the cardinal numbers (one, two, three)--the numbers used to count.

Louw Nida Codes:
60B One, Two, Three, Etc.
• What are the cardinal numbers? (the numbers you use when you count)
zero, one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen...
• multiples of ten
ten, twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, sixty, seventy, eighty, ninety
• multiples of one hundred
one hundred, two hundred
• multiples of one thousand
one thousand, two thousand
• numbers larger than one thousand
• What words are used to refer to the numbers of a certain decimal place?
the digits, the tens, hundreds, thousands, millions, billions, trillions
• What words are used to refer to groups of a certain decimal place?
tens, hundreds, thousands, tens of thousands, millions, billions, trillions
• What words refer to a very large number?
huge number, myriad, zillion, jillion, umpteen, googolplex,
• What words refer to an unlimited number?
infinity, infinite, boundless, endless, limitless,
• # 8.1.1.1.1 One

Use this domain for words related to the number one. It appears that every language has a word for 'one' and 'two', but not every language has a word for the numbers higher than two. Many languages have several words that mean 'one'.

• What words refer to one?
one, first, individual, single, only, the one, one apiece, one each,
• What words refer to being by yourself?
alone, by yourself, sole,
• What words refer to doing something by yourself?
alone, on your own, solo, solely,
• What words refer to people doing something one by one?
one by one, singly, individually,
• What words indicate that something happens or is done one time?
once, one time, single time, one-off,
• # 8.1.1.1.2 Two

Use this domain for words related to the number two.

• What words refer to two?
two, second, two times, two-fold, double (v), twins, brace, dichotomy, deuce, dual, dyad, twain, yoke, in pairs, in twos, two by two, by twos, two at a time, two apiece, two each, both, either, neither,
• What words refer to two people who do things together?
couple, pair, duo, twosome, duet,
• What words refer to two things that are used together?
pair, twin,
• What words refer to something used by two people?
for two, double, two-man,
• What words refer to something with two parts?
• What words refer to something used for two things?
dual, twofold,
• What words indicate that something is two times the amount of something else?
twice, double, twice as much (as), two times as much (as), two times what, double what,
• What words indicate that something happens or is done two times?
twice, twice over, two-time,
• # 8.1.1.2 Ordinal numbers

Use this domain for words related to the ordinal numbers (first, second, third)--the numbers used to indicate the order of something in a series, such as "the first child".

Louw Nida Codes:
60C First, Second, Third, Etc.
• What are the ordinal numbers?
first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seven, eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth, hundredth, thousandth,
• # 8.1.1.3 Number of times

Use this domain for numbers that refer to the number of times something happens or is done. These numbers may be adverbs as in English (twice) or in some languages they may be verbs (to do something two times).

Louw Nida Codes:
60E Once, Twice, Three Times, Etc. x
• What words indicate the number of times something has happened? ("He fell down three times.")
once, one time, single time, twice, two times, three times, thrice, four times, many times
• What words describe something that has happened a particular number of times?
two-time, three-time,
• What words refer to doing something a particular number of times (to do something once/twice/etc.)?
(none in English)
• # 8.1.1.4 Multiples

Use this domain for words related to multiples of something (single, double, triple).

Louw Nida Codes:
60F Double, Four Times As Much, Etc.
• What words describe something that is two or three times the amount of something else?
• What words indicate that something is two or three times the amount of something else?
twice as much (as), two times as much (as), two times what, double what,
• What words refer to something becoming two or three times as much?
• What words refer to making something become two or three times as much?
• # 8.1.1.5 Numbered group

Use this domain for words related to a group of a particular number of things or people (solo, duo, trio; alone, in threes).

Louw Nida Codes:
60G Pair, Group
• What words refer to a group of a particular number?
single, duo, duet, trio, quartet, quintet, sextet, twins, triplets, quadruplets, quintuplets, sextuplets, twosome, threesome, foursome, fortnight, decade, century, millennium, dozen, score, gross,
• What words indicate that only one person does something?
• What words refer to a group of two?
pair, couple, couplet, brace, dichotomy, deuce, dual, dyad, twain, yoke,
• What words refer to a group of three?
trilogy, trinity, triple, triumvirate, triune,
• What words indicate that something is done in groups of a certain number?
singly, one by one, two by two, three by three, by ones, by twos, by threes, in pairs, in threes, one at a time, two at a time, three at a time,
• What words indicate that everyone is to get a certain number of something?
one apiece, two apiece, three apiece, one each, two each, three each,
• # 8.1.1.6 Fraction

Use this domain for the numbers that refer to a fraction of something.

Louw Nida Codes:
60D Half, Third, Fourth
• What general words refer to a fraction of something?
fraction, proportion, percentage, decimal, decimal point,
• What words refer to a particular fraction of something?
half, one half, third, one third, two thirds, quarter, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth
• What words refer to dividing something into a fraction of the whole?
halve, quarter (v), bisect, trisect, (divide/cut/fold) in half, in two,
• # 8.1.1.7 Number series

Use this domain for other series of numbers that are different from those in the previous domains.

• What words refer to something made up of a certain number of parts?
duplex, tandem, tripartite,
• # 8.1.2 Count

Use this domain for words related to counting--to say the numbers in order, or to use numbers to find an amount.

• What words refer to saying the numbers in order?
• What words refer to counting the number of something?
count, count up, at the last count, keep count, keep track, keep a tally of, enumerate, enumeration,
• What words refer to determining the amount of something without being exact?
estimate, assess, reckon,
• What words refer to determining the quantity of something a second time?
recount, renumber
• What words refer to making a mistake when you count?
miscalculate, miscount, lose count,
• What words refer to the number or amount of something that is counted?
calculation, sum, estimate, estimation, count (n),
• What words refer to assigning a number to each thing in a series?
number, assign a number, count off
• What words describe an amount that cannot be counted?
innumerable, unnumbered, uncountable, uncounted, countless,
• # 8.1.2.1 Mathematics

Use this domain for words related to mathematics and arithmetic--the study of numbers.

OMC Codes:
803 Mathematics
• What words refer to mathematics?
mathematics, math, arithmetic, geometry, algebra, calculus, trigonometry, statistics,
• What words refer to determining the amount of something?
calculate, work out, figure out, make, figure, compute, solve,
• What words indicate the answer in an equation?
is, equals, get,
• What words refer to the answer to a mathematical problem?
• What words are used to talk about mathematics?
problem, equation, square root, squared, graph, axis,
• What words refer to a person who studies mathematics?
mathematician, statistician,
• What instruments are used to do mathematics?
calculator, computer, abacus, slide rule,

Use this domain for words related to adding two numbers together.

Louw Nida Codes:
• What words refer to adding two numbers together?
• What words refer to adding a series of numbers?
add up, tally (v), total (v),
• What words are used for addition equations?
• What words indicate the answer in an equation?
makes,
• What words refer to the total?
total (n), total (adj), sum, tally (n), grand total, subtotal, gross, aggregate, amount,
• What words indicate that a particular number is the total?
altogether, in total, in all, all told,
• What words indicate that the number of a group of things reaches a particular total?
come to, amount to, total (v), reach, add up to, make, bring the number to, bring the total to, number (v),
• # 8.1.2.3 Subtract numbers

Use this domain for words related to subtracting one number from another.

• What words refer to subtracting one number from another number?
subtract, take, take away, deduct, subtraction,
• What words are used for subtraction equations?
minus, subtracted from, from, less,
• What words indicate the answer?
leave, be left with,
• What words refer to the answer?
remainder, difference,
• # 8.1.2.4 Multiply numbers

Use this domain for words related to multiplying one number times another.

• What words refer to multiplying one number times another?
multiply, multiplication, multiples of (a number),
• What words are used for multiplication equations?
multiplied by, times,
• What words indicate the answer?
makes,
• What words refer to the answer?
product,
• # 8.1.2.5 Divide numbers

Use this domain for words related to dividing one number by another number.

• What words are used of dividing one number by another number?
divide, division,
• What words are used for division equations?
divided by, into, go into,
• What words indicate the answer?
times,
• What words refer to the answer?
quotient,
• # 8.1.3 Plural

Use this domain for words and affixes that indicate that there is more than one of something. Some languages, such as Indo-European languages, indicate plural with an affix. Other languages, such as Austronesian languages, use a separate word. Some languages also have words or affixes that indicate that there are two of something.

• What words indicate that there is more than one of something?
-s
• What words indicate that there are two of something?
pair of
• # 8.1.3.1 Many, much

Use this domain for words indicating that there are many things or people, or that there is much of something.

Louw Nida Codes:
59A Many, Few
59B Much, Little
59F Abundance, Excess, Sparing
• What words indicate that there is a large amount of something?
a lot of, lots of, a great deal of, a good deal of, a fair bit of, a fair amount of, much, loads of, tons of, masses of, scads of, piles of, heaps of, stacks of, a mountain of, extensive, widespread, big amount, lots and lots,
• What words indicate that there are a large number of things or people?
a lot of, lots of, many, many of, a large number of, large numbers of, plenty of, loads of, tons of, masses of, scads of, a bunch of, dozens of, numerous, a host of, quite a few, a wide range of, a raft of, multi-, multiple, a multitude of, considerable, goodly number, plethora, profuse, oodles, scores of,
• What words indicate that there are a very large number of things or people?
hundreds of, thousands of, millions of, a great many, countless, innumerable, overwhelming, myriad,
• What words indicate that many things are happening?
flood of, wave of, deluge of, avalanche of, stream, torrent,
• What words indicate that many bad things are happening?
spate of, epidemic, rash of, wave, be a hotbed of,
• What words indicate that many people are doing something?
in large numbers, in droves, in force, in strength, thick and fast, be dying like flies, be dropping like flies,
• What words describe something that many people are doing?
• What words indicate that someone does something a lot?
a lot, a good deal, a great deal, quite a bit, plenty, heavy,
• What words describe something that contains a lot of a particular substance?
high in, rich in,
• What words describe someone who makes many things?
productive, prolific,
• What words refer to using or giving a lot of something?
generous, liberal,
• What words describe a large number or amount?
large, big, high, sizable, considerable, substantial, significant, generous, handsome, hefty,
• What words describe a very large number or amount?
huge, enormous, vast, massive, colossal, goodly, immense, whopping,
• # 8.1.3.2 Few, little

Use this domain for words related there being few or little of something.

Louw Nida Codes:
59B Much, Little
• What words indicate that there is a small amount of something?
a little, a bit of, a small amount of, trace, trickle, dab, an element of, a touch of, a hint of, taste of, dearth, grain, hair, inappreciable, inconsequential, inconsiderable, infinitesimal, insignificant, iota, limited, minimum, minute, mite, moderate, modest, modicum, ounce, particle, poor, scant, scanty, scintilla, shred, slight, smidgen, some, speck, spoonful, suggestion, suspicion, tidbit, tinge, tiny, trifle, whit
• What words indicate that there is a very small amount of something?
not much, very little, to speak of, hardly any, scarcely any, almost no, minimal, negligible, precious little, next to nothing, a smattering of, a scrap of, tiny, minute,
• What words indicate that there are a small number of things or people?
few, a small number of, one or two, a handful of, sparse, not many, a couple of,
• What words indicate that there are a very small number of things or people?
very few,
• What words refer to a small amount of food?
a little, a drop of, pinch, dash, mouthful, in moderation, meager
• What words describe something that contains a little of a particular substance?
low in,
• What words refer to a small amount of money?
next to nothing, nominal, a drop in the ocean, paltry, miserly, a pittance, peanuts,
• What words refer to a small number of people that are part of a larger group?
a minority of,
• What words indicate that few people are doing something?
a trickle, in dribs and drabs, in ones and twos,
• What words refer to using or giving a little of something?
dab (v), spoon out, frugal, parsimonious, scrimp, be sparing, stingy, stint,
• # 8.1.3.3 Group of things

Use this domain for words that refer to a group of things.

• What words refer to a group of things?
group, collection, lot, cluster, clump, assortment, accumulation, aggregate, bits-and-pieces, nuts-and-bolts, odds-and-ends, stockpile, system, volley, wares
• What words refer to a group of things that belong together?
set, batch, suit,
• What words refer to a group of things that are tied or joined together?
bundle, bunch, sheaf, pack, package, packet, string of,
• What words refer to a group of things that are put on top of each other?
pile, stack, heap,
• What words refer to a group of things that are moved together?
• What words indicate that something is a member of a group?
member, one of, part of, belong to, go with,
• # 8.1.4 More

Use this domain for words related to there being more of something.

• What words refer to more of something in addition to what is already there?
• What words indicate an amount that is more than an amount already mentioned?
more than, over and above, as well as, plus, in addition to, on top of,
• What words describe something that is more than another thing in number or amount?
more, greater, higher, to a greater extent, to a greater degree,
• What words indicate that the actual number is more than a particular number?
more, over, above, beyond, greater than, in excess of, upwards of, plus, at least,
• What words refer to something being more than a particular number or amount?
be more than, be greater than, exceed, outnumber, be up on, pass, go past, surpass,
• What words indicate that there are many more of something?
many more, much more, far more, far beyond, way beyond, a lot more,
• # 8.1.4.1 Less

Use this domain for words that indicate that the number or amount of something is less than the number or amount of another thing.

• What words describe something that is less than another thing in number or amount?
less, fewer, not as much, not so much, not as many, not so many, lower, to a lesser degree, to a lesser extent, be in the minority, fewer and fewer, less and less, not more than, at the most,
• What words indicate that something is less than a particular number or amount?
less than, under, below, lower, within, minus,
• What words indicate that there is much less of something?
much less, far less, far fewer, way below,
• What words indicate that something is less in some quality than another thing?
less, not as, not so,
• What words indicate that something happens less or is done less?
not as much, not so much,
• # 8.1.4.2 Increase

Use this domain for words related to something increasing in number or amount--to be more than before.

Louw Nida Codes:
59G Increase, Decrease
• What words refer to something increasing in number or amount?
increase, go up, rise, grow, climb, gain, escalate, pick up, improve, widen, augment, expand,
• What words describe something that is increasing in number or amount?
increasing, rising, growing, mounting, escalating, expanding, more and more, cumulative,
• What words refer to increasing a lot?
multiply, double, treble, quadruple, proliferate, snowball,
• What words refer to increasing very quickly?
shoot up, soar, rocket, go through the roof, spiral, take off, jump,
• What words refer to increasing slowly?
accumulate, build up, pile up, collect, gather, mount up,
• What words refer to causing something to increase?
increase (vt), raise, put up, push up, drive up, force up, boost, maximize,
• What words refer to increasing something by adding to it?
add to, strengthen, swell, augment, supplement,
• What words refer to increasing what a machine is doing?
turn up,
• What words refer to an increase in number or amount?
increase (n), growth, rise, raise, build-up, upturn, hike, increment, proliferation, addition, supplement,
• What words refer to a large increase?
leap, surge, explosion, boom, jump,
• What words indicate that something happens or someone does something more than before?
increasingly, gain ground, get more and more, become more and more, grow in, gain in,
• What words describe something that someone is doing or feeling more than before?
increased, heightened, greater, higher,
• # 8.1.4.3 Decrease

Use this domain for words related to something decreasing in number or amount--to be less than before.

Louw Nida Codes:
59G Increase, Decrease
• What words refer to something decreasing in number or amount?
decrease, fall, go down, come down, slide, diminish, contract, shrink, lessen, reduce, reduction, depreciate, lose, narrow, slow down, abate, peter out, tail off, waste away,
• What words describe something that is decreasing in number or amount?
decreasing, declining, falling, lowering, shrinking, less and less, fewer and fewer,
• What words refer to decreasing very quickly?
drop, plummet, plunge, nosedive, slump, collapse, go through the floor,
• What words refer to decreasing slowly?
dwindle, decline, be on the decline, taper off, drop off, die down, ease off,
• What words refer to a decrease in number or amount?
decrease (n), reduction, drop, fall, decline, downturn, loss, cut, slump, collapse,
• What words refer to a quality becoming less?
lessen, subside, wane, ebb, recede,
• What words indicate that something happens or someone does something less than before?
decreasingly, lose ground, become less and less, get less and less,
• What words describe something that someone is doing or feeling less than before?
decreased, lowered, lower,
• What words refer to causing something to decrease?
reduce, lower, decrease, cut, slash, roll back, knock down, halve, minimize, abbreviate, abridge, curtail, dilate, drain,
• What words refer to reducing the amount of something you use or how much you do?
reduce, cut down on, scale down, scale back, cut back, trim, pare down, downsize, scrimp,
• What words refer to reducing pain or a bad feeling?
reduce, lessen, relieve, ease, alleviate, deaden, dull, take the edge off, allay, mitigate,
• What words refer to decreasing what a machine is doing?
reduce, lower, turn down,
• What words refer to something slowly reducing the number or amount of something?
erode, eat into, deplete, whittle away,
• # 8.1.5 All

Use this domain for words related to all.

Louw Nida Codes:
59C All, Any, Each, Every
• What words refer to all of a group of things?
all, everything, the lot, every, each, without exception, altogether, total, a hundred percent, whatsoever, whichever,
• What words refer to all of something?
all, whole, entire, the lot, every bit of, every inch of, every drop of, in its entirety, from start to finish, the whole of, totality,
• What words refer to all of what you want?
whatever, anything, everything but the kitchen sink, you name it,
• What words describe something that affects or includes everything?
total, blanket, overall, global, all-embracing, universal, all-pervading, complete, comprehensive, exhaustive, full, general, indiscriminate, sweeping, thorough, thoroughgoing, unmitigated, unqualified, utter, widespread, worldwide
• What words refer to all people?
everyone, everybody, anybody, whoever, whomever, whomsoever, whosoever,
• What words refer to all times?
always, every time, any time, everyday,
• What words refer to all places?
everywhere,
• What words refer to all ways?
every way, all-out,
• # 8.1.5.1 Some

Use this domain for words related to some--a number or amount of things or people when the number is not stated; an indefinite number or amount.

• What words indicate some of a group of things or people?
some, any, several, a number of,
• What words indicate some of an amount of something?
some, any, a certain amount of, a measure of,
• # 8.1.5.2 None, nothing

Use this domain for words that nothing, no one, never, and nowhere.

• What words refer to no thing?
none, not any, no, nothing, not anything, be nil, bugger all,
• What words refer to not any of a number of things?
none, not any, no, not one, not a, nothing,
• What words refer to no person?
no one, nobody,
• What words refer to no time?
never, no time,
• What words refer to no place?
nowhere, no place,
• What words refer to the number zero?
zero, nil, naught, o,
• # 8.1.5.3 Both

Use this domain for words referring to both of two things.

• What words refer to both of two things?
both, the two of, the pair of, each, mutual, share, either, neither,
• # 8.1.5.4 Most, almost all

Use this domain for words related to most--more than half and less than all of something.

• What words refer to most of something?
most, almost all, nearly all, the majority, the bulk of, the better part of, the best part of, the lion's share, the biggest slice of the cake,
• What words describe something that is done by most people?
• What words indicate that most of a group is of one kind.
mostly, mainly, largely, predominantly, predominate, be in the majority, a preponderance,
• What words indicate that something happens or someone does something more than anything else?
mostly, mainly, in most cases, most of the time,
• What words refer to less than half of something?
minority,
• # 8.1.5.5 Most, least

Use this domain for words related to the most--the largest number or amount; or the least--the smallest number or amount. Most/least may refer to the largest/smallest number possible or needed. If there are several groups being counted, most/least may refer to the largest/smallest group.

• What words refer to the largest amount of something?
maximum, most,
• What words refer to the smallest amount of something?
the least, minimum, the fewest, the lowest,
• What words refer to the largest group?
the most,
• What words refer to the smallest group?
the least,
• What words refer to an amount being the largest it has ever been?
an all-time high, record high, high water mark,
• What words refer to an amount being the smallest it has ever been?
an all-time low, record low, lowest ebb,
• # 8.1.5.6 Almost

Use this domain for words related to a number or amount that is almost the same as another number.

• What words indicate that something is almost a particular number or amount?
almost, nearly, close to, close on, approaching, nearing, not quite, be pushing, pretty well,
• What words indicate that someone has almost reached a place?
• What words indicate that something has almost reached a particular state?
almost, nearly, very nearly, just about, practically, virtually, all but, as good as, to all intents and purposes, nearing, approaching, near to, close to, verging on, bordering on, more or less, pretty much, not quite,
• What words indicate that something is almost finished?
almost, nearly, just about, practically, as good as, more or less, not quite,
• What words indicate that someone almost does something?
almost, nearly, very nearly, come close to, be on the verge of, come within an inch of,
• What words indicate that something almost happens?
almost, be near to, be on the brink of, come within an inch of,
• What words indicate that something is almost the best or worst example of some quality?
almost, nearly, practically, virtually, just about, verging on, bordering on,
• What words indicate that something is so similar to something that it is almost the same thing?
almost, practically, virtually,
• What words indicate that something is almost some quality (such as some color or shape)?
almost, more or less, practically, virtually, not quite,
• What words indicate that something is true of or has happened to almost all of something?
almost, nearly, practically, virtually, pretty well, more or less, just about,
• # 8.1.5.7 Only

Use this domain for words referring to only a particular number or amount of people or things--no more than one, or no more than a particular number or amount.

• What words describe the only person or thing?
only, sole, the one, lone, solitary, alone, one and only, single,
• What words indicate that there is only a particular number or amount of something?
only, just, no more than, all,
• What words indicate something is true of only one thing or one group of things, and not true of others?
only, just, exclusively, nothing but, nothing else, be limited to, be restricted to, be confined to, be unique to, be peculiar to, exclusive,
• What words indicate that something is only what you say it is, and not something more?
only, just, purely, merely, mere, nothing but,
• # 8.1.5.8 Exact

Use this domain for words that indicate whether a number or amount is exact--not more and not less.

• What words describe a number or amount that is exact?
exact, precise,
• What words indicate that a number or amount is exact?
exactly, precisely,
• What words indicate that something happens at an exact time?
exactly, precisely, on the dot, sharp,
• What words indicate that something happens at an exact place?
right, bang, smack, plumb,
• What words describe something that is exactly the same as another thing?
exact, accurate, faithful, strict, literal, word for word, just
• What words indicate that something is done in exactly the right way?
exactly, strictly, religiously, to the letter,
• # 8.1.5.8.1 Approximate

Use this domain for words that indicate whether a number or amount is approximate.

Louw Nida Codes:
• What words describe a number or amount that is approximate?
approximate, rough,
• What words describe something that is not exact?
inexact, inaccurate, sort of, kind of,
• What words indicate that a particular number or amount is approximate?
about, approximately, roughly, give or take, at a guess, somewhere in the region of, an estimated, some, something like, in round numbers, close to,
• What words indicate an approximate number when the actual number is possibly more?
or so, odd, or more, at least, and maybe more, barely, hardly, little more than, scarcely,
• What words indicate an approximate number when the actual number is possibly less?
at most, as much as, short of,
• What words refer to determining the approximate number of amount of something?
approximate (v), estimate (v), overestimate, underestimate,
• What words refer to estimating a number to the nearest ten, hundred, thousand, etc?
rounded to the nearest ten/hundred/thousand, round up, round down,
• What words refer to a number that is approximate?
estimate (n), approximation, ballpark figure, round figure,
• What words indicate that something happens at an approximate time?
• What words indicate that something happens at an approximate place?
about, around, in the vicinity of, near, close to,
• What words describe something that is approximately the same as another thing?
• What words indicate that something is done in approximately the right way?
roughly, more or less, somewhat,
• # 8.1.5.9 Average

Use this domain for words related to an average number.

• What words refer to an average number?
average (n), mean, medium, median,
• What words describe an average number?
• What words refer to calculating the average?
average (v), average out,
• # 8.1.6 Whole, complete

Use this domain for words describing a whole thing--all of something with no parts missing.

Louw Nida Codes:
63 Whole, Unite, Part, Divide
63A Whole
• What words indicate that something is whole?
complete, full, whole, in full, in its entirety, be all there, all of, entire, intact, undivided, united,
• What words refer to making something complete?
complete, make up, assemble,
• What words indicate that something is not whole?
incomplete, partial, missing something,
• # 8.1.6.1 Part

Many things have parts. Use this domain for words referring to a part of something, and for words that express the idea that something has parts, that something is a part of something, or that link the whole with a part.

Louw Nida Codes:
63D Part
• What words refer to a part of something?
part, bit, portion, section, segment, sample, cross-section, member,
• What words refer to the parts that something is made from?
component, element, piece, ingredient, constituent
• What words refer to the parts of a process?
stage, phase, round,
• What words refer to the parts of an organization?
branch, department, division, section, sector, wing, end, subdivision,
• What words refer to the parts of a story?
episode, installment, chapter, scene, part, extract, excerpt, clip,
• What words refer to the parts of a situation?
aspect, side, dimension, facet, factor, feature, detail,
• What words refer to being a part of something?
be part of, form a part of, inherent,
• What words indicate that something has parts?
have, of, -'s, consist of, be made of, be made up of, be composed of, comprise, be divided into, include
• # 8.1.6.2 Piece

Use this domain for words referring to a part of something that has been broken or cut off.

• What words refer to a piece of something?
piece, bit,
• What words refer to a piece that has flat sides?
block, cube, slab, bar,
• What words refer to a piece that is irregular in shape?
chunk, hunk, lump, dollop,
• What words refer to a thin piece?
sheet, slip, pane, slice,
• What words refer to a very small piece?
grain, flake, speck, fleck, crumb, morsel, tidbit, dot, mote,
• What words refer to a small piece that is left after something has been broken?
fragment, scrap, splinter, chip, shard,
• What words refer to a part of something that has been made by dividing it in some way?
pinch (of salt), cut (of meat), slice (of bread), bite (of cake)
• # 8.1.7 Enough

Use this domain for words related to being or having enough--to have as much of something or as many of something as you need or want.

Louw Nida Codes:
57B Have Sufficient
59E Enough, Sufficient
• What words describe something that you have enough of?
enough, sufficient, adequate, satisfactory, enough to go round,
• What words indicate that there is enough of something for what you need?
be enough, do, suffice, cover, last, meet someone's needs, get by, afford to,
• What words indicate that someone is strong enough or old enough to do something?
enough, sufficiently
• What words describe a situation in which someone does enough or something happens enough?
• What words refer to having enough of something?
have enough, be OK for, be all right for, be well off for, have sufficient,
• What words refer to having enough of something to do what you want?
have the time/money, can afford, can spare, run to,
• What words refer to having more than enough, but not too much?
more than enough, plenty, ample,
• What words refer to not having enough?
not enough, insufficient, too little, too few, scarce, inadequate, inadequacy, shortage, lack of, be in short supply, be short,
• What words indicate that there is not enough of something for what you need?
not be enough, be running short, not last, won't last,
• What words indicate that someone is not strong enough or old enough to do something?
not (strong) enough, not sufficiently,
• What words describe a situation in which someone does not do enough or something does not happens enough?
not...enough, too little,
• What words refer to not having enough of something?
not have enough, be short of, be short on, go short, be running short of, deficient, be starved of, be lacking in,
• What words refer to not having enough of something to do what you want?
not have enough, can't afford, be strapped for cash,
• # 8.1.7.1 Extra

Use this domain for words related to having extra--to have more than enough or more than what you need.

Louw Nida Codes:
59F Abundance, Excess, Sparing
• What words refer to having extra?
have extra,
• What words indicate that there is more than enough of something?
plenty of, more than enough, bags of, in large quantities, plentiful, ample, abundant, an abundance of, in abundance, copious, galore, to spare,
• What words refer to the amount that is extra?
extra (n), surplus, excess, leftover, overflow,
• What words describe something that is extra?
• What words refer to having too much?
too much, too many, excessive,
• # 8.1.7.2 Lack

Use this domain for words related to having insufficient--to not have enough.

Louw Nida Codes:
57E Need, Lack
• What words refer to not having enough?
lack, suffer lack, be lacking in, have insufficient, be insufficient, don't have enough, ill-furnished, ill-provided, deficient,
• What words describe something that you lack?
inadequate, insufficient, meager, needed, poor, scant, scanty, scarce, short,
• What words refer to something that you lack?
lack (n), want (n), deficiency, scarcity, shortage,
• What words refer to not having enough food or money to live?
destitute, can't make ends meet, starve,
• # 8.1.7.3 Need

Use this domain for words related to needing something for some purpose.

Louw Nida Codes:
57E Need, Lack
• What words refer to needing something?
need, be in need of, require, be a need for, could do with, have a need, be in a pinch, be in want,
• What words refer to needing something very much?
be desperate for, be crying out for, can't do without, be dependent on, depend on, rely on, be reliant on, badly need,
• What words refer to something that is needed?
someone's needs, necessity, requirement, need (n),
• What words describe something that is needed?
necessary, essential, vital, indispensable, be a necessity, be a must, requisite, prerequisite, required,
• What words refer to a situation in which someone needs something?
need (n), time of need, dependence, reliance,
• What words describe someone who needs something?
needy, dependent,
• What words refer to something needing something done to it?
need, be in need of, could do with,
• What words indicate that something makes it necessary to do something?
make it necessary, necessitate, call for, entail, take, need, require,
• What words refer to providing something that is needed?
meet a need, satisfy a need, fulfill requirements, meet requirements, meet the demand, fill a need,
• What words refer to not needing something?
don't need, can do without, can manage without, have no need of, have no use for, can dispense with,
• What words describe something that is not needed?
unnecessary, needless, gratuitous, dispensable, luxury,
• What words describe someone who does not need anything?
independent,
• # 8.1.7.4 Remain, remainder

Use this domain for words related to the remainder of something--the part or amount of something that remains behind after the other parts have been taken away. Something can be left because everything else has been used or eaten, or everything else has been destroyed or burned.

Louw Nida Codes:
63E Remnant
• What words refer to something remaining?
left, remain, be left over, survive, be still standing, to spare, to go, in hand,
• What words refer to the remainder?
the remains, remnants, leftovers, ruins, what is left of, what remains of, the rest, the remainder, the last of, residue,
• What words refer to the bad part that remains after the good part has been taken?
butt, dregs, leavings, offscourings, rags, scraps, sweepings,
• What words refer to a very small part that remains?
• What words describe something that remains?
remaining, last, outstanding, spare, leftover, residual, surplus, surviving,
• # 8.1.8 Full

Use this domain for words referring to a container being full of something.

Louw Nida Codes:
59D Full, Empty
• What words describe something that is full?
full, full up, bulging, be full to the brim, be bursting at the seams, be full to capacity, be chock-a-block, be packed out, be up to the brim, brimful, brimming, bursting, charged, chock-full, chockablock, jam-packed, jammed, loaded, replete, saturated, soaked, stuffed, supercharged,
• What words refer to something being full of something?
be full of, be filled with, be crammed with, be stuffed with, be packed with, be packed full of, be crammed full of,
• What words describe a place that is full of people?
crowded, packed, crammed with, be packed out, booked up, fully booked, congested, dense, occupied, throng, thronged, thronging,
• What words refer to something become full?
fill, fill up,
• What words refer to making something full?
fill, fill up, cram, pack, stuff, crowd, load, load up, fill to the brim, flood, inject, jam, pump something full, suffuse,
• What words describe something that has been made full?
filled,
• What words refer to filling something again after it has been emptied?
refill, replenish, top up, top off,
• What words refer to a place being full of animals or insects?
swarm, teem, be teeming with, be swarming with, be crawling with,
• What words refer to being fuller than another thing?
fuller, fullest,
• What words refer to the state of being full?
fullness,
• What words indicate how full something is?
how full, be (half) full,
• What words describe something that is almost full?
almost full, not quite full
• What words refer to something being partly full?
half full,
• What words describe something that is full and overflowing?
overflow, overflowing, run over, running over, brimming over, full and running over, overcrowded, overfilled,
• # 8.1.8.1 Empty

Use this domain for words referring to being empty.

Louw Nida Codes:
59D Full, Empty
• What words describe something that is empty?
empty, blank, devoid, hollow, clear, cleaned out, barren, drained, dry,
• What words describe a place that has no people in it?
empty, bare, deserted, desolate, ghost town, wasteland, uninhabited, lonely, vacant, free, unoccupied,
• What words indicate that no one is in a place?
nobody present, no one here, no one there, not a soul, nary a one,
• What words refer to something that is empty?
empties, blank (n), space, vacuum, the void, vacancy,
• What words refer to something becoming empty?
empty (v), drain,
• What words refer to making something empty?
empty (v), drain, turn out, clear (v), dump out, clean out,
• What words describe something that has been made empty?
emptied, depleted,
• What words refer to the state of being empty?
emptiness,
• What words describe something that is almost empty?
almost empty, not quite empty,
• What words refer to something being partly empty?
half empty,
• # 8.2 Big

Use this domain for words describing something that is big.

Louw Nida Codes:
79B' Large, Small
• What words describe something that is big?
big, large, biggish, bulky, fair-sized, be a fair size, good-sized, be a good size, bulky, grand, imposing, sizable, substantial,
• What words describe something that is very big?
huge, enormous, massive, colossal, great, giant, gigantic, great big, be a whopper, be quite a size, astronomical, elephantine, mammoth, monstrous, monumental, prodigious, stupendous, tremendous, vast,
• What words refer to something that is big?
mass, giant,
• What words refer to something becoming big?
get bigger, expand, grow, swell up, stretch, inflate, increase in size, swell, mushroom,
• What words refer to part of something becoming big?
branch, excrescence,
• What words refer to making something big?
extend, stretch, enlarge, blow up, magnify, expand, inflate, augment,
• What words refer to the process of becoming big?
enlargement, expansion, extension, growth, inflation, increase (n), magnification,
• What words describe something that has been made big?
enlarged, swollen, inflated,
• What words refer to being bigger than another thing?
bigger, biggest, larger, largest, greater, greatest,
• What words describe something that is much bigger than other things of the same type?
outsized, giant, extra large,
• What words refer to how big something is?
size, dimensions, magnitude,
• What words indicate how big something is?
how big, measure (10 meters), be 10 meters long/wide/high,
• What words refer to measuring how big something is?
measure,
• What words refer to a unit of size?
cubic (inch, foot, yard),
• What instruments are used to measure the size of something?
ruler, tape measure
• What words describe a system of measures?
metric
• What words describe something that is not big or small?
medium, average, medium-sized, average-sized, in between,
• What words refer to something being big on one side or end?
• What words describe something that is too big?
gross, outsized, overgrown, oversized, unwieldy,
• # 8.2.1 Small

Use this domain for words referring to being small.

Louw Nida Codes:
79B' Large, Small
• What words describe something that is small?
small, little, dainty, miniature, compact,
• What words describe something that is very small?
tiny, minute, miniscule, microscopic, infinitesimal, wee, diminutive,
• What words refer to something that is small?
dwarf, midget,
• What words refer to something becoming small?
get smaller, shrink, shrivel, shrivel up, contract, decrease in size, reduce, wither,
• What words refer to making something small?
shrink, stunt,
• What words refer to the process of becoming small?
reduction, contraction, decrease (n),
• What words describe something that has been made small?
shrunken,
• What words refer to being smaller than another thing?
smaller, smallest, littler, littlest,
• What words describe something that is much smaller than other things of the same type?
undersized, dwarf, midget, extra small,
• What words refer to how small something is?
size,
• What words indicate how small something is?
how small,
• What words describe something that is made small enough to carry?
compact, pocket, miniature
• # 8.2.2 Long

Use this domain for words related to being long. In many languages there is more than one system of measuring length. These systems may be used for different purposes or in different jobs. For instance measuring the length of an object may use different words than measuring the distance a person travels.

Louw Nida Codes:
81C Long, Short, Far
81F Specific Measures of Length
• What words describe something that is long?
long, lengthy, extensive,
• What words describe a long distance?
long, huge, vast,
• What words refer to something that is long?
a length of,
• What words refer to something becoming long?
get longer, lengthen, stretch,
• What words refer to making something long?
make something longer, lengthen, extend, stretch,
• What words describe something that has been made long?
lengthened, elongated, extended, stretched, outstretched,
• What words refer to being longer than another thing?
longer, longest,
• What words refer to how long something is?
length, distance, how long, span,
• What words indicate how long something is?
is, measure (v), long, in length, how long, be (two inches) (too) long,
• What words refer to measuring how long something is?
measure, pace off, step off,
• What words refer to a unit of length?
inch, foot, yard, mile, light year, millimeter, centimeter, meter, kilometer, day's journey,
• What instruments are used to measure the length of something?
caliper, chain, line, micrometer, rod, rule, ruler, tape measure, measuring tape, tapeline, yardstick,
• What words describe a system of lengths?
metric,
• # 8.2.2.1 Short, not long

Use this domain for words related to being short in length.

Louw Nida Codes:
81C Long, Short, Far
• What words describe something that is short?
short, compact, dumpy, dwarfed, pug, runty, shrimpy, skimpy, stubby, stumpy,
• What words refer to something becoming short?
get shorter, shrink, contract,
• What words refer to making something short?
shorten, make something shorter, cut down, condense
• What words describe something that has been made short?
shortened, abbreviated, abridged, compressed, condensed, contracted, shriveled, shrunk, shrunken,
• What words refer to being shorter than another thing?
shorter, shortest,
• What words refer to how short something is?
shortness,
• What words indicate how short something is?
how short, be (two inches) (too) short,
• # 8.2.2.2 Tall

Use this domain for words related to being tall--a word describing something that is big from the top to the bottom.

Louw Nida Codes:
23K Grow, Growth
81B High, Low, Deep
• What words describe something that is tall?
tall, high,
• What words describe something that is very tall?
soaring, towering,
• What words describe a tall person?
tall, lanky, gangling, leggy, hulking, gangly, strapping,
• What words refer to a tall person?
giant,
• What words refer to becoming tall?
get taller, grow, sprout, shoot up, put on height
• What words refer to making something tall?
raise, heighten,
• What words describe something that has been made tall?
raised, heightened,
• What words refer to being taller than another thing?
taller, tallest, tower over, tower above, dwarf (v), dominate,
• What words refer to how tall something is?
height, stature,
• What words indicate how tall something is?
how tall, be (six feet) tall, be (ten meters) high, be (six feet) in height,
• # 8.2.2.3 Short, not tall

Use this domain for words related to being short in height.

Louw Nida Codes:
81C Long, Short, Far
• What words describe something that is short?
short, dumpy, dwarfed, low, runty, shrimpy, squat, squatty, stumpy, low,
• What words describe someone who is short?
short, not very tall, small, little, petite, squat,
• What words describe someone who is very short?
tiny, diminutive, puny,
• What words refer to a short person?
midget, squirt, dwarf, runt, shrimp,
• What words refer to becoming short?
shrink,
• What words refer to making something shorter?
shorten, shrink something,
• What words describe something that has been made short?
shortened, shrunken,
• What words refer to how short something is?
shortness, how short,
• What words indicate how short something is?
be (two inches) (too) short,
• # 8.2.3 Thick

Use this domain for words referring to being thick.

Louw Nida Codes:
81D Narrow, Wide
• What words describe something that is thick?
thick, chunky, fat,
• What words describe something like a branch or rope that is thick?
thick, stout,
• What words describe something like cloth or paper that is thick?
thick, heavy,
• What words refer to something becoming thick?
thicken, get thick,
• What words refer to making something thick?
thicken,
• What words refer to being thicker than another thing?
thicker, thickest,
• What words refer to how thick something is?
thickness,
• What words indicate how thick something is?
how thick, be ten centimeters thick,
• What words describe a part of something that is thick?
thickening,
• # 8.2.3.1 Thin thing

Use this domain for words describing something that is thin.

Louw Nida Codes:
81D Narrow, Wide
• What words describe something that is thin?
thin, slender, slight, stringy,
• What words describe something like a branch or rope that is thin?
thin, spindly,
• What words describe something like thread that is thin?
fine, fibrous, fine-spun,
• What words describe something that is thin and flat?
thin, paper-thin, wafer-thin, slim,
• What words describe something like cloth or paper that is thin?
thin, fine, light, lightweight,
• What words describe something that is thin and weak?
flimsy, tenuous,
• What words refer to something becoming thin?
get thinner, grow thinner,
• What words refer to making something thin?
taper,
• What words refer to being thinner than another thing?
thinner, thinnest,
• What words describe something that is thin on one side or end?
tapering,
• # 8.2.3.2 Fat person

Use this domain for words describing a person or animal who is fat.

Louw Nida Codes:
81D Narrow, Wide
• What words describe someone who is fat?
fat, overweight, big, large, portly, hefty, thickset, corpulent, fleshly, heavy, paunchy, ponderous, roly-poly, rotund, heavy-set,
• What words describe someone who is very fat?
obese, obesity, gross,
• What words describe someone who is fat and short?
dumpy, tubby, stout, stocky, squat, stubby,
• What words describe someone who is fat and attractive?
plump, chubby,
• What words describe someone who is fat and strong?
brawny, burly,
• What words refer to someone who is fat?
tub, porker,
• What words refer to someone becoming fat?
put on weight, gain weight, fill out, get fat,
• What words refer to making someone fat?
fatten,
• What words describe food that makes someone fat?
fattening,
• What words describe someone who has been made fat?
fattened,
• What words refer to being fatter than another person?
fatter, fattest,
• What words refer to how fat someone is?
weight, bulk,
• What words describe a part of the body that is fat?
pudgy, flabby, full, thick, ample, podgy,
• What words refer to a fat stomach?
paunch, pot belly, beer gut, spare tire, middle-age spread, paunchy,
• # 8.2.3.3 Thin person

Use this domain for words describing a person or animal who is thin.

Louw Nida Codes:
81D Narrow, Wide
• What words describe someone who is thin?
thin, slight,
• What words describe someone who is very thin?
emaciated, skeletal, be skin and bones, underweight, gaunt,
• What words describe someone who is thin and tall?
lanky, spindly, rangy,
• What words describe someone who is thin and attractive?
slim, slender, trim, willowy, keep your figure, dapper, svelte,
• What words describe someone who is thin and not attractive?
skinny, bony, scrawny, scraggy, angular,
• What words describe someone who is thin and strong?
lean, wiry,
• What words refer to someone who is thin?
scarecrow, skeleton, bag of bones,
• What words refer to someone becoming thin?
lose weight, slim, shed (ten) pounds, waste away, get thin,
• What words refer to being thinner than another person?
thinner, thinnest,
• What words describe a face that is thin?
pinched, drawn, gaunt, hollow cheeks,
• What words refer to a thin stomach?
flat stomach,
• What words refer to trying to become thin?
try to lose weight, watch your weight, watch your figure, diet, be on a diet, go on a diet, slim (v),
• # 8.2.4 Wide

Use this domain for words related to being wide--a word describing something like a road or river that is far from one side to the other side.

Louw Nida Codes:
81D Narrow, Wide
• What words describe something that is wide?
• What words refer to a place where something is wide?
widening, wide spot,
• What words refer to something becoming wide?
• What words refer to making something wide?
• What words refer to the process of becoming wide?
• What words describe something that has been made wide?
• What words refer to being wider than another thing?
• What words refer to how wide something is?
• What words refer to how wide a circle or hole is?
bore, caliber, diameter,
• What words indicate how wide something is?
how wide, be (ten feet) wide, be (ten feet) across,
• # 8.2.4.1 Narrow

Use this domain for words related to being narrow.

Louw Nida Codes:
81D Narrow, Wide
• What words describe something that is narrow?
narrow, thin,
• What words describe something that is very narrow?
tight squeeze,
• What words refer to a place where something is narrow?
narrows, narrowing, waist, neck,
• What words refer to something becoming narrow?
narrow (v), get narrower, taper, thin (v),
• What words refer to making something narrow?
narrow (v), taper, thin (v), constrict,
• What words refer to the process of becoming narrow?
constriction, restriction,
• What words describe something that has been made narrow?
tapered, thinned, constricted, restricted,
• What words refer to being narrower than another thing?
narrower, narrowest, thinner, thinnest,
• What words indicate how narrow something is?
how narrow, be only (one inch) wide, be (two inches) (too) narrow,
• # 8.2.5 Big area

Use this domain for words describing a big area.

• What words describe a big area?
big, large, extensive, fair-sized, be a fair size, broad, expansive, wide, wide open,
• What words describe a very big area?
huge, immense, vast, enormous,
• What words describe a big room?
spacious, roomy, cavernous, be big inside,
• What words refer to an area that is big?
expanse,
• What words refer to an area becoming big?
• What words refer to making an area big?
expand,
• What words describe an area that has been made big?
expanded,
• What words refer to being bigger in area than another thing?
bigger, biggest, roomier,
• What words refer to how big an area is?
area, acreage, size, square footage, extent,
• What words indicate how big an area is?
how big, be (ten acres) in size, cover, extend over,
• What words refer to measuring an area?
survey,
• What words refer to a unit of measure of area?
acre, hectare, square (inch, foot, yard, mile, meter, kilometer)
• What instruments are used to measure an area?
rod,
• What words describe a small area?
small, narrow (plot of ground), cramped, poky,
• What words refer to how big around an area is?
circumference, around,
• # 8.2.5.1 Big container, volume

Use this domain for words referring to the volume of something.

Louw Nida Codes:
81E Specific Measures of Volume
• What words describe a big container?
big, large, capacious, voluminous,
• What words describe a very big container?
huge, enormous,
• What words refer to a container that is big?
tank, tub,
• What words refer to a container becoming big?
expand, inflate,
• What words refer to making a container big?
expand, enlarge,
• What words describe a container that has been made big?
expanded,
• What words refer to a container being bigger than another container?
bigger, biggest,
• What words refer to how big a container is?
volume, capacity, size, dimensions,
• What words indicate how big a container is?
how big, be (ten liters) in volume, hold, be (ten) cubic inches, be two meters long two meters wide and two meters high, be two by two by two,
• What words refer to measuring the volume of a something?
measure, find the volume,
• What words refer to a unit of volume?
cubic (inch, foot, yard), milliliter, centiliter, deciliter, liter, decaliter, kiloliter, hectoliter, cup, pint, quart, gallon, fluid ounce, dry ounce, peck, bushel, measure, batch,
• What instruments are used to measure volume?
measuring cup, measuring spoon,
• What words describe a system of measures?
metric, imperial,
• What words refer to an amount of something that has been measured by a particular container?
• What words describe a small container?
small,
• # 8.2.6 Distance

Use this domain for words referring to the distance between two things.

• What words refer to the distance between two things?
distance, how far, span, as the crow flies,
• What words indicate the distance between two places?
from, away, off, apart, away from
• What words refer to the distance something can move?
range, reach (n), extent,
• What words indicate that something (like an area or road) continues for some distance?
extend, stretch, go on, continue, spread
• What question words ask for the distance between two things?
• # 8.2.6.1 Far

Use this domain for words indicating that something is far from something else.

Louw Nida Codes:
83E At, Beside, Near, Far x
• What words indicate that something is far from something else?
far, far away, far off, afar, far afield, far and wide, a far cry from, far apart, far removed, distant, be distant, a long distance, in the distance, some distance, a good distance, a ways, way off, a long way (off), a long ways away, a fair way, quite a ways, nowhere near, miles (away), yonder, wide of, clear off, all over, asunder, at arm's length, on the horizon, the ends of the earth, uttermost parts of the earth
• What words describe something that is far?
distant, remote, faraway, out of the way, long-distance, far-flung
• What words refer to how far something is?
distance, how far
• What words indicate that something is far enough so that you cannot do something?
too far, out of sight, out of range, beyond reach, out of reach, out of hearing
• What words refer to moving away from someone or something?
go away, recede
• What words refer to moving away from a person or vehicle behind you?
leave behind, leave in the dust
• What words refer to staying far from something?
not go near, not come near, stay away from, keep away from, keep your distance, keep off, stay back, keep back, remain at a distance, stand off, stand aloof, steer clear of, stand clear of
• What words refer to a long distance?
long distance, long haul, long range, a fur piece
• What words describe a place that is far away from where most people go?
remote, isolated, out of the way, off the beaten track, secluded, miles from anywhere, in the middle of nowhere, way out, backwater, backcountry, boondocks, boonies, hicks, out in the sticks
• What words indicate that something is farther than something else?
farther, further, beyond, past, on the other side of, farthest, furthest, extreme, in the offing, background
• # 8.2.6.2 Near

Use this domain for words indicating that something is near something else.

Louw Nida Codes:
83E At, Beside, Near, Far x
• What words indicate that something is near something else?
near, nearby, close, close to, close by, not far, practically on top of, a short distance, locally, in the vicinity, nigh, around, a stone's throw, in the neighborhood
• What words describe something that is near?
nearby, nearest, the next, neighboring, local, surrounding
• What words refer to how near something is?
nearness, closeness, proximity
• What words indicate that something is near enough so that you can do something?
near enough, close enough, within walking distance, within reach, within range, convenient, handy, be close at hand, around the corner, close up, up close, at close quarters, at close range, right under your nose
• What words refer to moving nearer to someone or something?
approach, get near, get nearer, near (v), draw near, get close, get closer, close in on, get as close as possible
• What words refer to moving nearer to a person or vehicle in front of you?
catch up, be gaining on, be closing on
• What words refer to staying near something?
stay close, keep close, hug, cling to
• What words indicate that something is nearer than something else?
nearer, closer, before, on this side of, nearest, closest
• # 8.2.6.3 High

Use this domain for words that express the idea that something is high.

Louw Nida Codes:
81B High, Low, Deep
• What words describe something that is high?
high, lofty, upper, alpine, topmost,
• What words describe something that is very high?
soaring,
• What words indicate that something is high in the air?
be high up, high above, far above, way up there, sky-high, up in the air, be aloft,
• What words refer to becoming high?
rise, soar,
• What words refer to making something high?
heighten, raise,
• What words describe something that has been made high?
heightened, raised,
• What words describe a surface that is higher than the area around it?
raised, elevated,
• What words refer to being higher than another thing?
higher, highest,
• What words refer to how high something is?
height, altitude, level, elevation,
• What words indicate how high something is?
(100 meters) high, be (100 meters) in height,
• What words refer to being afraid of being in a high place?
fear of heights, vertigo,
• # 8.2.6.4 Low

Use this domain for words indicating that something is low--in the air but not high above the ground.

Louw Nida Codes:
81B High, Low, Deep
• What words describe something that is low?
low,
• What words describe something that is very low?
hugging the ground, down low, way down,
• What words indicate that something is low?
be low, down,
• What words refer to becoming low?
fall,
• What words refer to making something low?
lower,
• What words describe something that has been made low?
lowered,
• What words describe a surface that is lower than the area around it?
low-lying, depressed, depression,
• What words refer to being lower than another thing?
lower, lowest,
• # 8.2.6.5 Deep, shallow

Use this domain for words related to being deep or shallow--how far something such as a hole extends below the ground or other surface, or how far something is below the surface of the water.

Louw Nida Codes:
81B High, Low, Deep
• What words describe something that is deep?
deep, deeply, deep-seated, in the depths, deep down,
• What words describe something that is very deep?
bottomless,
• What words describe how deep something is for a person?
• What words refer to a deep place?
the depths, channel, trench, gulf, abyss,
• What words refer to something becoming deep?
deepen, get deeper,
• What words refer to making something deep?
deepen, dredge, dig out,
• What words refer to being deeper than another thing?
deeper, deepest,
• What words refer to how deep something is?
depth,
• What words indicate how deep something is?
how deep, be (ten feet) deep, (ten feet) in depth, at a depth of (ten feet), plunge (ten feet),
• What words refer to measuring how deep something is?
take a sounding, plumb,
• What instruments are used to measure how deep something is?
plumb line,
• What words refer to a unit of depth?
fathom,
• What words describe something that is shallow?
shallow, not deep, skin-deep, superficial, surface,
• What words refer to a shallow place?
shallows, shoal,
• # 8.2.7 Fit, size

Use this domain for words referring to something fitting--when something is not too big or too small, but just right.

• What words refer to something fitting?
fit, dovetail, go in, go on,
• What words describe something that fits?
be the right size, dovetailed, a good fit,
• What words refer to the size of something?
size, fit (n),
• What words refer to changing the size of something so that it will fit?
fit something to something, resize,
• # 8.2.7.1 Tight

Use this domain for words referring to being tight--when something is too small.

• What words describe something that is tight?
tight, too small
• What words refer to something becoming tight?
get tight
• What words refer to making something tight?
tighten
• # 8.2.7.2 Loose

Use this domain for words referring to being loose--when something is too big.

• What words describe something that is loose?
loose, too big
• What words refer to something becoming loose?
come loose
• What words refer to making something loose?
loosen
• # 8.2.7.3 Wedged in, stuck

Use this domain for words referring to being wedged in or stuck in a hole.

• What words describe something that is stuck?
wedged in, stuck
• # 8.2.8 Measure

Use this domain for words related to measuring something--to find out the size, length, weight, or amount of something.

OMC Codes:
804 Weights and Measures
Louw Nida Codes:
81 Spatial Dimensions
81A Measure, To Measure
6V Instruments for Measuring
• What words refer to measuring something?
measure, take a measurement, assay, assess, balance, calibrate, determine, fathom, gauge, grade, mete, meter, pace, plumb, quantify, rank, reach, read, take a reading, record, rule, sound, span, step off, stretch, stride, survey, tape, test, time,
• What words refer to the size or amount of something?
capacity, dimension, distance, extent, length, measure, portion, quantity, size, volume,
• What words describe something that can be measured?
measurable, quantifiable,
• What words refer to the number or amount that you get when you measure something?
• What general words refer to a unit of measure?
unit, measure, standard, scale, benchmark,
• What words indicate that something is a particular size or amount?
is, measure (v), weigh, how big, of
• What instruments are used to measure something?
abacus, almanac, beam, calendar, caliper, chain, chronometer, clock, compass, dial, gauge, instrument, level, line, micrometer, plumb, protractor, quadrant, rod, rule, ruler, sextant, square, straightedge, tape, tapeline, thermometer, watch, yardstick,
• What words refer to an amount that cannot be measured?
immeasurable, measureless, incalculable, unfathomable, unmeasured, untold,
• # 8.2.9 Weigh

Use this domain for words related to weighing something.

Louw Nida Codes:
86 Weight
86B Pound, Talent
• What words refer to weighing something?
weigh,
• What words refer to the weight of something?
weight, mass,
• What words refer to a unit of weight?
ounce, pound, ton, milligram, centigram, decigram, gram, dekagram, kilo, kilogram, metric ton, kiloton, megaton, atomic weight, carat, dram, grain, hundredweight, pennyweight, stone, talent, gross weight, net weight,
• What words indicate that something is a particular weight?
is, weigh, how heavy, weigh in at,
• What instruments are used to weigh something?
scale, balance, weight,
• What words describe a system of weights?
apothecary, avoirdupois, metric, troy,
• What words refer to how much weight something can support without breaking or falling?
support, carry, hold, load, weight, pressure,
• # 8.2.9.1 Heavy

Use this domain for words related to being heavy.

Louw Nida Codes:
86A Heavy, Light
• What words describe something that is heavy?
heavy, burdensome, cumbersome, cumbrous, heavyweight, hefty, lumpish, massive, overweight, ponderous, unwieldy, weighty,
• What words describe something that is very heavy?
weigh a ton,
• What words refer to something that is heavy?
a weight,
• What words refer to something becoming heavy?
gain weight, put on weight,
• What words refer to making something heavy?
weigh down, weight (v),
• What words describe something that has been made heavy?
weighted,
• What words refer to being heavier than another thing?
heavier, heaviest,
• # 8.2.9.2 Light in weight

Use this domain for words related to being light in weight.

Louw Nida Codes:
86A Heavy, Light
• What words describe something that is light?
light, light, lightness, airy, buoyant, ethereal, lightweight, porous, spongy, underweight,
• What words describe something that is very light?
light as a feather, weightless,
• What words refer to something becoming light?
lose weight, work something off, work off some of this weight,
• What words refer to making something light?
make something lighter, lighten,
• What words describe something that has been made light?
lightened,
• What words refer to being lighter than another thing?
lighter, lightest,
• What words indicate how light something is?
how light, be (two pounds) (too) light,
• # 8.3 Quality

Use this domain for general words referring to the quality or condition of something.

Louw Nida Codes:
79 Features of Objects
• What general words refer to the quality or condition of something?
quality, condition, state, character, nature, feature
• What words indicate that something has more of a quality than another thing?
more, surpass,
• What words indicate that something has less of a quality than another thing?
less, not as, not so
• # 8.3.1 Shape

Use this domain for general words referring to the shape of something, and for general words referring to changing the shape of something.

Louw Nida Codes:
79W Shapes
79R Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Shapes
• What general words refer to the shape of something?
shape, form, figure, silhouette,
• What words refer to the outside shape of something?
outline, lines, profile, contour,
• What words refer to having a particular shape?
shaped, in the shape of, in the form of,
• What words refer to an irregular shape?
irregular, jagged,
• What words refer to the wrong shape?
misshapen, deformed, distorted, out of shape, lopsided, lose its shape,
• What words refer to having no clear shape?
shapeless, formless, amorphous,
• What general words refer to changing the shape of something?
shape (v), change the shape of, form, mold, transform
• What words describe something like a branch or road that divides into two parts?
forked, bifurcate, bifurcated, fork, branch, a Y in the road,
• # 8.3.1.1 Point, dot

Use this domain for words referring to a point--a small mark such as might be made by a pointed object.

• What words refer to a point?
point, dot, polka dot, spot, pinpoint, speck, mote, jot, iota, fleck, period
• # 8.3.1.2 Line

Use this domain for words referring to a line.

• What words refer to a line?
line, band, row
• What tools are used to draw a line?
ruler, straightedge
• What words describe two lines that go in the same direction?
parallel
• # 8.3.1.3 Straight

Use this domain for words referring to being straight.

Louw Nida Codes:
79Q Straight, Crooked
• What words describe something that is straight?
straight, straight as an arrow, direct, even, lank, linear, rectilinear, true,
• What words refer to making something straight?
straighten, straighten out,
• What words refer to something becoming straight?
straighten, straighten out,
• # 8.3.1.3.1 Flat

Use this domain for words describing something that is flat--having a surface that is even. A board or wall is flat when its surface is even and it does not bend.

• What words describe something that is flat?
flat, flat as a pancake, even, flush,
• What words refer to making something flat?
flatten, even (v), even out, smooth, level, roll something flat, press, squish, squash, smash, mash, spread thin
• What words refer to something becoming flat?
flatten, flatten out, level off,
• What words refer to something flat?
plane, sheet
• What words describe something that is not flat?
rough, bumpy, uneven, lumpy, hilly, rolling, mountainous,
• # 8.3.1.4 Horizontal

Use this domain for words describing a horizontal orientation in relation to the ground or something that is level--a flat surface that does not rise in any direction. A person is horizontal when he is sleeping. A field is level when it is not on a hill and it has no uneven areas in it.

Louw Nida Codes:
17D Prostrate x
• What words describe something in a horizontal position?
horizontal, prone, prostrate, longwise, flat on the ground, on its side, lie, prone, flush, on an even keel, on the level, parallel to the ground
• What words refer to becoming horizontal?
fall on your face, fall prone, prostrate oneself, get horizontal, fall flat, hit the dirt, lay flat
• What words refer to causing something to be horizontal?
lay something flat, lay something down, align
• What words describe a surface that is level?
• What words refer to making something level?
make level, level (v),
• # 8.3.1.4.1 Vertical

Use this domain for words describing a vertical orientation in relation to the ground. A person is vertical when he is standing.

• What words describe something in a vertical position?
vertical, upright, up-and-down, plumb, erect, upraised, perpendicular, at right angles, square, standing, true, straight, straight up, bolt upright
• What words refer to making something vertical?
raise, stand something up, stand something on end, erect, set up, rear
• What words describe a surface that is vertical?
sheer, drop (n)
• What words describe when the top of something is on the bottom?
upside down, inverted, upended
• What tools are used to determine if something is vertical?
plumb line, level, square
• # 8.3.1.4.2 Leaning, sloping

Use this domain for words describing a leaning orientation in relation to the ground, or a surface that is sloping.

• What words describe something in a leaning position?
leaning, at an angle, out of plumb, angled, on a slant, aslant, slanted, inclined, oblique, tilted, crooked, list, askew, out of kilter
• What words refer to causing something to lean?
lean, angle, tilt, slant, incline
• What words refer to leaning something against something else?
lean something against, incline, prop against
• What words describe a surface that is sloping?
sloping, slope up/down, on an incline, rising, rise up (toward), ascending, upgrade, uphill, falling, fall away, descending, downgrade, downhill, dip
• What words refer to a surface that is sloping?
slope (n), ramp, ascent, rise, bank, incline (n), grade
• What words refer to how much something is leaning or sloping?
• What words describe a surface that is not level?
uneven, rough, hilly, wavy, lumpy, broken (ground), rugged
• # 8.3.1.5 Bend

Use this domain for words referring to bending something and for words that describe something that is bent or curved.

Louw Nida Codes:
79Q Straight, Crooked
• What words refer to bending something?
bend, bow, flex, curve, put a kink in,
• What words refer to something bending?
bend, buckle, curl, sag, warp,
• What words describe something that is bent?
bent, arched, bowed, crinkled, curved, curving, curled, devious, gnarled, gnarly, hooked, indirect, jagged, kinked, knotted, knotty, knurled, knurly, turning, twirled, twisted,
• What words describe something that should be straight but is bent?
akimbo, askew, awry, bandy, catawampus, contorted, crooked, deviating, distorted, skewed, tortuous, warped,
• What words refer to a bend in something?
bend, bow, curve, kink, loop, angle, joint,
• What words refer to making many bends in something?
corrugate,
• What words describe something that has many bends?
circuitous, coiled, convoluted, corrugated, curly, curvy, kinky, meandering, pretzel, serpentine, serrated, sinuous, snaky, spiral, tortuous, twisting, undulating, waved, waving, wavy, wind, winding, zigzag,
• What words refer to a line or road that is bent?
bend, curve, twist,
• What words describe something that can be bent?
bendable, flexible, flexibility, jointed, pliable, plastic, supple,
• What words describe something that cannot be bent?
unbending, inflexible, inflexibility, rigid, rigidity,
• # 8.3.1.5.1 Roll up

Use this domain for words referring to rolling something up.

Louw Nida Codes:
79A' Rolled up
• What words refer to rolling something up?
roll up, scroll, curl
• What words refer to something that has been rolled up?
roll, scroll, curl, spiral
• What words refer to unrolling something?
unroll, unfurl,
• # 8.3.1.5.2 Twist, wring

Use this domain for words referring to twisting something--to take something long and turn one end one way and the other end the other way.

• What words refer to twisting something?
twist, wind, twine, coil, wring, wring out, torque
• What words describe something that has been twisted?
twisted, winding, entwined, coiled, wrung out
• # 8.3.1.5.3 Fold

Use this domain for words referring to folding something.

• What words refer to folding something?
fold, fold up, crease, turn down, double over, crimp, dog-ear,
• What words refer to something folding?
fold, fold up, crease, get creased,
• What words describe something that is folded?
folded, creased, dog-eared,
• What words refer to a fold in something?
fold, crease, angle, plait, wrinkle, flap, lapel, dog-ear, tuck, gather, pleat,
• What words refer to making many folds in something?
crumple, gather, pleat, rumple, tuck, wrinkle,
• What words describe something that has many folds?
crumpled up, pleated, wrinkled,
• What words describe something that can be folded?
folding, jointed,
• # 8.3.1.6 Round

Use this domain for words referring to being round.

• What words describe something that is round?
round, circular, spherical, globular, ball shaped, ring
• What words refer to something that is round?
circle, loop, ball, globe, sphere, arch,
• What words refer to making something round?
round (off), roll into a ball, make a ball of, loop
• What tools are used to draw a circle?
compass
• What words refer to something that is long and round?
cylinder, cylindrical, rod, pipe, tube
• # 8.3.1.6.1 Concave

Use this domain for words describing something that is concave--extending inward in shape away from the viewer. The inside of a bowl is concave in shape.

• What words describe something that is concave?
concave, hollow, hollowed out, caved in, dented, indented, vaulted,
• What words refer to making something concave?
hollow out, carve out, dent in, indent, push in the side
• What words refer to a concave part of something?
nook
• # 8.3.1.6.2 Convex

Use this domain for words describing something that is convex--extending outward in shape toward the viewer.

• What words describe something that is convex?
convex, bulging, bulbous, billowing out
• What words refer to making something convex?
bulge, puff out, balloon out, protrude
• # 8.3.1.6.3 Hollow

Use this domain for words describing something that is hollow--empty on the inside.

• What words describe something that is hollow?
hollow, cavernous, inflated
• What words refer to making something convex?
hollow out
• What words refer to something that is not hollow?
solid
• # 8.3.1.7 Square

Use this domain for words referring to being square.

• What words describe something that is square?
square
• What words refer to something that is square?
square, rectangle, cube, block
• # 8.3.1.8 Pattern, design

Use this domain for words that refer to a pattern--a regular arrangement of shapes.

• What words refer to a pattern?
pattern, design, motif, patterning, markings,
• # 8.3.1.8.1 Symmetrical

Use this domain for words that describe something that is symmetrical--having the same shape on both sides

• What words describe something that is symmetrical?
symmetrical, regular, even, balanced, even sided
• What words describe something that is not symmetrical?
asymmetrical, irregular, uneven, unbalanced, lopsided
• # 8.3.1.9 Stretch

Use this domain for words referring to stretching something.

• What words refer to stretching something?
stretch, draw out, enlarge, extend
• What words describe something that can be stretched?
elastic
• What words describe something that cannot be stretched?
inelastic
• # 8.3.2 Texture

Use this domain for general words referring to the texture of something--how the surface of something feels when you touch it.

• What words refer to how something feels?
texture, surface, (to have a) feel, (it) feels (rough), quality, grain, prickly
• What words refer to giving something a certain texture?
texture (v)
• # 8.3.2.1 Smooth

Use this domain for words referring to being smooth.

• What words describe something that is smooth?
smooth, silky, satin smooth, even, velvety, fine
• What words refer to making something smooth?
to smooth, even out, polish, buff, shine
• # 8.3.2.2 Rough

Use this domain for words referring to being rough.

Louw Nida Codes:
79P Uneven, Level
• What words describe something that is rough?
rough, uneven, rutted, grooved, scraped up, scratched, corrugated
• What words refer to making something rough?
to roughen, scrape, scratch
• What words refer to a rough or uneven part of something?
rut, groove, furrow, groove, wrinkle
• # 8.3.2.3 Sharp

Use this domain for words describing something that is sharp.

Louw Nida Codes:
79S Sharp
• What words describe something that is sharp?
sharp, razor sharp, keen edged
• What words refer to making something sharp?
sharpen, give an edge to
• # 8.3.2.3.1 Pointed

Use this domain for words describing something that is pointed.

• What words describe something that is pointed?
pointed
• What words refer to a point?
point
• What words refer to making something pointed?
to point, give a point to, sharpen to a point
• # 8.3.2.4 Blunt

Use this domain for words describing something that is blunt.

• What words describe something that is blunt?
blunt, dull
• # 8.3.2.5 Furrow

Use this domain for words related to a furrow--a long mark cut into the surface of something, such as the furrow made by a plow, or a long cut made by a knife.

Louw Nida Codes:
1H Depressions and Holes
• What words refer to a furrow?
furrow, groove, rut, scratch, crack, score, incision, slit, chamfer, channel, gutter, trench, ditch, moat, trough, seam, line, fold, wrinkle
• What words refer to making a furrow?
furrow, plow, incise, score, cut, seam, cut a channel, engrave, etch, bite in
• What words describe something with many furrows?
furrowed, ribbed, striated, fluted, corduroy, corrugated, rippled, washboard, wrinkled
• # 8.3.3 Light

Use this domain for words related to light.

OMC Codes:
373 Light
Louw Nida Codes:
14F Light
• What words refer to light?
light, sunshine, gleam (n), glare (n), glow (n), radiance,
• What words refer to making light shine in a place?
light (v), light up, illuminate,
• What words describe something that has light shining on it?
be light, illuminated, sunlit, moonlit, starlit, lighted, luminous,
• What words refer to a ray of light?
ray, beam, shaft, sunbeam, moonbeam,
• What words refer to different kinds of light?
daylight, sunlight, moonlight, starlight, firelight, candlelight, electric light, electromagnetic radiation, fluorescence, fluorescent light, incandescent light, infrared, lamplight, luminescence, luminescent, phosphorescence, phosphorescent, photoelectric, ultraviolet,
• What words are used to describe light?
• # 8.3.3.1 Shine

Use this domain for words related to a light source shining--for something to make light.

• What words refer to a light source shining?
shine, glow, gleam, blaze, shed light, radiate,
• What words refer to something shining for a very short time and then becoming dark again?
flash, flare, spark, scintillate,
• What words refer to something shining with small points of light?
twinkle, glitter, shimmer, flicker, glimmer,
• What words refer to something shining brighter and dimmer again and again?
• What words describe something that shines dimly in the dark?
luminous, fluorescent, glow in the dark, glimmer,
• # 8.3.3.1.1 Light source

Use this domain for words related to a source of light--something that makes or gives light.

Louw Nida Codes:
6N Lights and Light Holders
• What words refer to something that makes light?
light, lamp, candle, arc light, beacon, chandelier, electric light, fire, fixture, flare, flashlight, flash (camera), floodlight, fluorescent light, globe, headlight, incandescent light, lamp-post, lantern, lighthouse, lighting, light source, luminary, night-light, paraffin lamp, searchlight, spotlight, street light, strobe, sunlamp, taillight, taper, torch,
• What words describe something that produces light?
light producing, shining,
• What are the parts of a lamp?
lampstand, stand, wick, chimney, bulb, light bulb, lamp shade, switch, filament, socket,
• What are the parts of a candle?
candlestick, wick, wax, candelabra, holder,
• What words refer to the lights being on in a place?
the lights are on, be lit up, ablaze,
• What words refer to a light starting to work?
come on,
• What words refer to making a light start working?
turn on, light (a candle), switch on,
• What words refer to a light stopping?
go out, go down, dim,
• What words refer to making a light stop working?
turn out, put out, turn down, switch off,
• What words refer to not turning off the lights?
leave the lights on,
• # 8.3.3.1.2 Bright

Use this domain for words describing something that is bright.

• What words describe a light that is bright?
bright, strong, good, harsh,
• What words describe a light that is very bright?
blazing, brilliant,
• What words describe a light that is so bright it hurts your eyes?
blinding, dazzling, glare,
• What words describe a place where there is lots of light?
bright, light, well lit, ablaze with light,
• What words refer to the light becoming brighter?
get light, brighten, lighten, the light grows,
• # 8.3.3.2 Dark

Use this domain for words describing something that is dark--a place where there is little or no light.

Louw Nida Codes:
14G Darkness
• What words describe a place where there is no light?
• What words describe a place where there is little light?
pale, dim, weak, poor, bad, soft, low, dull, dusky,
• What words describe a place where there is very little light?
unlit, dimly-lit, darkened, the half-light,
• What words describe a place that is dark and makes you feel bad or afraid?
• What words refer to a place becoming dark?
get dark, darken, the light fades, dim (v), fall, go dark, be plunged into darkness,
• What words refer to darkness?
darkness, the dark, gloom,

Use this domain for words related to a shadow--the area on the ground where the light does not shine because something is in the way. For instance if the sun
(or another light) is shining on an object, the area behind the object is in shadow (dark).

• What words refer to a shadow?
• What words refer to something blocking the light from shining on something?
• What words describe something in the shadow of something else?
• # 8.3.3.3 Color

Use this domain for words related to color.

Louw Nida Codes:
79G Color
• What words refer to color?
color, shade, tint, hue, coloring, pigment, tincture, cast, palette, coloration, complexion, chroma, chromatic, tone,
• What words indicate that something is a particular color?
be red/green, be a red/reddish color, colored, tinted,
• What words describe something that is a dark color?
dark, deep, rich,
• What words describe something that is a light color?
light (adj), pale, pastel, faint, livid, lurid, pallid, pallor, pale-faced, neutral tint,
• What words describe something that is a bright color?
bright, brightly colored, brilliant, pure, gaudy, garish, vivid, flashy, fresh, intense, strong, hot,
• What words describe something that is a dull color?
dull, faded, washed out, drab, dingy, flushed, clouded, grayish, somber,
• What words describe something, such as a photograph, that has been made with color?
color (photograph), in color,
• What words describe something that has no color or is black and white?
colorless, black and white, uncolored, monochrome, achromatic, ghostly, glassy, lackluster, undyed,
• What words refer to the intensity of a color?
value, intensity, saturation,
• What words refer to pure or mixed colors?
pure, mixed, tinge, primary color, secondary color, tertiary color,
• What words describe colors that look good together?
go together, go with, suit you, color scheme, complimentary,
• What words describe colors that do not look good together?
clash,
• What words describe someone who cannot see color?
color-blind
• What words refer to a color or pattern of colors used by a group of people to identify themselves?
livery, tartan, team colors,
• # 8.3.3.3.1 White

Use this domain for words describing something that is white.

• What words describe something that is white in color?
white, alabaster, albino, bleached, chalky, cream, cream-colored, creamy, eggshell, fair, ivory, lily-white, milk-white, milky, off-white, oyster white, pearl, pearly, snowy, snow-white,
• # 8.3.3.3.2 Black

Use this domain for words describing something that is black.

• What words describe something that is black in color?
black, pitch black, jet-black, inky black, ebony black, black as coal, coal-black, black as pitch, black as night, night-black, henna, negro, raven,
• # 8.3.3.3.3 Gray

Use this domain for words describing something that is gray.

• What words describe something that is gray in color?
gray, ashen, charcoal gray, grizzle, grizzled, grizzly, hoar, hoary, leaden, mouse-colored, mousy, muddy, slate-gray, smoky, sooty, steel-gray,
• # 8.3.3.3.4 Colors of the spectrum

Use this domain for words describing something that is colored.

• What words refer to all the colors arranged in the spectrum of the rainbow?
spectrum, rainbow, prism, spectral,
• What words describe a kind of color?
primary color, secondary color, earth color, warm color, cool color, infrared,
• What are the shades of red?
red, beet-red, blood-red, blush, brick-red, cardinal, carmine, carnelian, cherry, Chinese red, claret, coral, crimson, fiery, fire-red, flame-colored, incarnadine, lobster, lobster-colored, madder, pink, puce, roan, rose, rose-colored, roseate, rosy, rouge, ruby-red, ruddy, scarlet, vermilion, wine,
• What are the shades of orange?
orange, apricot, cadmium, carrottop, carroty, ocher, peach, salmon, tangerine,
• What are the shades of yellow?
yellow, amber, banana, blond, blonde, canary, chartreuse, chrome yellow, citron, cream, flaxen, gold, golden, goldilocks, jaundice, lemon, saffron, sallow, straw-colored, sulfur, tawny, terra cotta, yellow ocher, xanthous,
• What are the shades of green?
green, greenish, apple-green, bottle-green, chlorine, emerald, grass, grass-green, khaki, leaf-green, leek-green, lime-green, olive, pea, pea-green, peacock, sap green, sea-green, topaz, verdant, viridian,
• What are the shades of blue?
blue, azure, baby-blue, beryl-blue, carbuncle, cerulean, cobalt, cyan, cyanic, indigo, lapis lazuli, navy blue, Prussian blue, royal blue, sapphire, sky blue, teal, turquoise, ultramarine,
• What are the shades of purple?
purple, violet, amethyst, crocus, hyacinth, lavender, lilac, liver-colored, magenta, maroon, mauve, mulberry, plum, plum-colored, royal purple,
• What are the shades of brown?
brown, tan, beige, flesh colored, auburn, brunette, buff, chestnut, chocolate, cinnamon, cocoa, coffee, dun, fawn, foxy, hazel, khaki, mahogany, ocher, russet, rust, sepia, sienna, sorrel, umber, walnut,
• What words describe something that looks like metal?
metallic, copper, brass, bronze, bronzed, gilded, gilt, gold, golden, platinum, silver, silvery, steely,
• # 8.3.3.3.5 Animal color, marking

Use this domain for words related to animal colors and markings.

• What words are used to describe the coloring of an animal?
russet, bay, palomino, sable, tortoise-shell,
• What words are used to describe the markings on an animal?
spotted, striped, camouflaged, flecked, speckled, piebald, dappled, star, blaze, brindled, calico, tabby, pinto,
• # 8.3.3.3.6 Change color

Use this domain for words related to changing the color of something.

• What words refer to changing the color of something?
color (v), color something in, blacken, bleach, denigrate, dye, discolor, emblazon, imbue, ingrain, paint (v), redden, shade (v), stain, tinge, tint, add color, mix colors, tone down, whiten,
• What words are used of something changing color?
change color, lose its color, blush, turn pale, pale, blanch,
• What words refer to dye being washed out of cloth?
wash out, run,
• What words refer to the sun changing the color of something?
• What words describe something whose color has changed?
• What words refer to things used to change the color of something?
paint (n), dye (n), bleach (n), food coloring, stain (n),
• What words describe a color that does not change?
fast,
• # 8.3.3.3.7 Multicolored

Use this domain for words describing something that is multicolored--having many different colors.

• What words describe something that has many different colors?
colorful, multicolored, gaudy, garish, harlequin, multihued, many-colored, many-hued, brightly colored, variegated, polychrome, polychromatic, kaleidoscope, kaleidoscopic, play of colors, motley, pepper-and-salt, grizzled, mosaic,
• What words describe something that is colored with lines?
lined, striped, streaked, checkered, plaid, tartan, checked, marbled, banded, barred, cross-striped, damask,
• What words describe something that is colored with spots?
spotted, speckled, dotted, blotchy, dappled, mealy, mottled, pied, spotty,
• What words describe something that is colored like a rainbow?
rainbow-hued, iridescence, iridescent, prismatic, opalescence, opalescent, pearly,
• # 8.3.3.4 Shiny

Use this domain for words that describe something that is shiny--when something gives back light because light is shining on it.

• What words describe something that is shiny?
shiny, glossy, polished, glassy, gleaming, sleek, silky, shining,
• What words describe something that is shiny like metal?
silvery, metallic,
• What words describe something that is shiny like water?
shimmering, glistening,
• What words refer to something being shiny when light shines on it?
shine (in the light), gleam, glint, glisten, glister, glitter, glow, shimmer, sparkle,
• What words refer to the shiny appearance of something?
shine, sheen, gloss, luster,
• What words describe something that is not shiny?
dull, matt,
• # 8.3.4 Hot

Use this domain for words describing something that is hot.

OMC Codes:
374 Heat
Louw Nida Codes:
79N Hot, Lukewarm, Cold
• What words describe something that is hot?
hot, heat, red hot, boiling, burning hot, molten, ardent, baking, blazing, brisk, broiling, burning, calorific, fervent, fervid, fevered, fiery, glowing, heat, hot, igneous, incandescent, reeking, scorching, sizzling, smoking, torrid, white-hot,
• What words describe food that is hot?
hot, piping hot, scalding,
• What words describe something that is warm?
be warm, lukewarm, tepid,
• What words describe a time or place that is hot?
hot, boiling, be a scorcher, sultry, sunny, sweltering, sweltry, tropical, heat wave,
• What words describe a time or place that is warm?
warm, the warmth, balmy, mild, temperate,
• What words describe a time or place that is so hot that you are uncomfortable?
stifling, muggy, humid, oppressive,
• What words refer to feeling hot?
hot, warm, boiling,
• What words refer to feeling hot because you are sick?
have a temperature, feverish,
• What words refer to how hot something is?
temperature, heat, degree, Celsius, Centigrade, Fahrenheit, level of heat, warmth,
• What things do people use to measure how hot something is?
thermometer,
• What words refer to something becoming hot?
warm up, get hot, thaw, melt, temperature is rising,
• What words refer to making something hot?
heat something, warm something, thaw something, melt something, take the chill off, heat up, reheat, warm up,
• What happens to things and people when they get hot?
boil, melt, burn, warp, sweat,
• What words describe clothes that make you feel warm?
warm, thermal,
• What things do people use to stay warm when it is cold?
fire, heater, furnace, central heating, radiator, hot-water bottle, electric blanket,
• What words describe something that is neither hot nor cold?
room temperature, ambient temperature,
• # 8.3.4.1 Cold

Use this domain for words describing something that is cold.

Louw Nida Codes:
79N Hot, Lukewarm, Cold
• What words describe something that is cold?
cold, frozen, icy, glacial, hibernal, hiemal, hyperborean, marmoreal, unthawed,
• What words describe food that is cold?
cold, cool, chilled, ice-cold, stone-cold,
• What words describe something that is cool?
cool, crisp, refresh, unfrozen,
• What words describe a time or place that is cold?
cold, the cold, frosty, wintry, cold spell, cold snap, frigid, bleak,
• What words describe a time or place that is cool?
cool, chilly, drafty, nippy, fresh, crisp, bracing, chill,
• What words describe a time or place that is very cold?
freezing, bitterly cold, arctic, subzero temperatures,
• What words describe a wind that is cold?
freezing, bitter, biting, cutting, raw,
• What words refer to feeling cold?
be cold, feel cold, look cold, freezing, frozen, feel the cold,
• What words refer to feeling cold because you are sick?
get the chills, ague,
• What words refer to how cold something is?
temperature, coldness, coolness,
• What words refer to something becoming cold?
get cold, turn cold, drop, fall, cool down, cool, cool off, freeze, lose heat
• What words refer to making something cold?
cool something, chill, refrigerate, freeze something,
• What happens to things when they get cold?
freeze, harden, brittle, frost-bound,
• What happens to people when they get cold?
shiver, be blue with cold, goose pimples, goosebumps, gooseflesh, someone's teeth are chattering, frostbite, frostbitten, freeze to death, die of cold,
• What words describe clothes that make you feel cool?
cool,
• What things do people use to stay cool when it is hot?
fan, cooler, air-conditioning, air-conditioner, air-conditioned, refrigeration,
• # 8.3.5 Type, kind

Use this domain for words related to something being a type of thing, or that something belongs to a class of things.

Louw Nida Codes:
58D Class, Kind
58 Nature, Class, Example
• What words indicate that something belongs to a class of things?
be, be a kind of, be a type of, be a member of, include
• What words refer to the class to which something belongs?
type, kind, class, group, variety,
• What words refer to a member of a class?
kind (of), type (of), member (of), example (of), sort (of), such
• What words refer to assigning something to a class?
classify (with, as), classification, class, assign to a class, categorize, grade, group, sort,
• # 8.3.5.1 Nature, character

Use this domain for words related to the nature of character of something.

Louw Nida Codes:
58A Nature, Character
58C Basic Principles or Features Defining the Nature of Something
• What words refer to the nature or character of something?
nature, character, such
• # 8.3.5.2 Compare

Use this domain for words related to comparing something or someone with another thing.

Louw Nida Codes:
64 Comparison
• What words refer to comparing one thing with another?
compare, comparison, contrast, than, comparable
• # 8.3.5.2.1 Same

Use this domain for words describing something that is the same thing as you just mentioned, or describing two things that are exactly the same.

Louw Nida Codes:
58E Same or Equivalent Kind or Class
• What words refer to the same person or thing, not a different one?
the same, the very same, the self-same, one and the same, common,
• What words describe two things that are the same?
same, identical, indistinguishable, can't tell the difference, can't tell them apart, be no different from, match, be a carbon copy, word for word, be synonymous with, be no better than, be nothing more than,
• What words indicate that two numbers or amounts are the same?
the same, equal, equivalent, even, level,
• What words describe someone or something that is the same as before?
be the same, unchanged, hasn't changed a bit, hasn't changed at all, unaffected,
• What words describe someone or something that never changes?
the same, consistent, unchanging, constant,
• What words describe something that is the same in all its parts?
uniform, homogeneous,
• What words refer to making all the things in a group the same?
standardize, bring something into line,
• What words indicate that two things that people said are the same?
correspond, be consistent with, agree, tally, coincide, match up,
• What words indicate that something in one group is the same in some way as something in another group?
corresponding, equivalent, counterpart, opposite number,
• What words refer to thinking the same as someone else?
like-minded, be on the same wavelength, be in tune with, be in harmony,
• What words indicate that a part of one thing is the same as part of something else?
overlap,
• What words indicate that two things are the same in some way?
equally, of equal, equal in, just as, as...as, every bit as, even, evenly,
• What words refer to saying that two things are the same in some way?
equate,
• # 8.3.5.2.2 Like, similar

Use this domain for words describing two things or people that are similar, but not the same.

• What words describe two things that are similar?
like, similar, alike, much the same, comparable, parallel,
• What words refer to something being like another thing?
resemble, bear a resemblance to, akin to, have an affinity with, the same sort of,
• What words describe two things that are very similar?
be two of a kind, have a lot in common, tantamount,
• What words describe two things that are a little similar?
kind of like, vaguely resemble
• What words indicate that something happens or is done in a similar way?
similarly, like, such as, as,
• What words refer to something being like another thing in some way?
have something in common, share something, correspond,
• What words refer to something looking like another thing?
look like, resemble, the image of,
• What words refer to something looking very much like another thing?
be just like, look just like, be the image of, be the spitting image of, be the living image of, could pass for, could be mistaken for, be a dead ringer for, be the picture of,
• What words refer to someone who looks like another person?
look-alike, double,
• What words refer to being like your mother or father?
be like, take after, be a chip off the old block,
• What words indicate that someone or something makes you think of another person or thing because they are similar?
remind someone of, be reminiscent of, echo,
• What words refer to the quality of being similar?
similarity, likeness, resemblance,
• What words refer to the way in which two things are similar?
similarity, parallel,
• # 8.3.5.2.3 Different

Use this domain for words describing two things that are different--not the same.

Louw Nida Codes:
58F Different Kind or Class
• What words describe two things that are different?
differ, different, else, vary, dissimilar, unlike,
• What words indicate that two numbers or amounts are different?
different, unequal,
• What words refer to the way in which two things are different?
difference, variation, dissimilarity,
• What words refer to discovering the difference between two things?
tell the difference, see the difference, distinguish, differentiate,
• # 8.3.5.2.4 Other

Use this domain for words related to other, as in 'the other person', 'another thing'--a thing that is not the same as something that has been mentioned.

• What words refer to another thing?
other, another, different, else, other than,
• # 8.3.5.2.5 Various

Use this domain for words describing a group of things that are all different from each other.

• What words describe a group of things that are different?
various,
• # 8.3.5.2.6 Opposite

Use this domain for words describing two things that are opposite.

• What words describe two things that are opposite?
opposite,
• # 8.3.5.3 Common

Use this domain for words describing something that is common.

• What words describe something that is common?
• # 8.3.5.3.1 Usual

Use this domain for words describing something that is usual.

• What words describe something that is usual?
usual, normal, natural, typical, ordinary
• # 8.3.5.3.2 Unusual

Use this domain for words describing something that is unusual.

Louw Nida Codes:
58H Unusual, Different From the Ordinary
• What words describe something that is unusual?
unusual, rare, infrequent, out of the ordinary, abnormal, unnatural, atypical, singular
• # 8.3.5.3.3 Unique

Use this domain for words describing something that is unique--not like anything else.

Louw Nida Codes:
58G Distinctive, Unique
• What words describe something that is not like anything else?
unique, distinctive
• # 8.3.5.3.4 Strange

Use this domain for words describing something that is strange.

• What words describe something that is strange?
strange, odd, funny, peculiar, weird
• What words describe a person who is not like most other people?
unusual, abnormal, exceptional, aberrant, peculiar, unnatural, eccentric, uncommon, rare, unique, odd, strange, queer, quaint, original, unconventional, weird
• What words refer to not being like most other people?
unconformity, nonconformity
• # 8.3.5.4 Pattern, model

Use this domain for words related to a pattern or model.

Louw Nida Codes:
58I Pattern, Model, Example, and Corresponding Representation
58J Archetype, Corresponding Type
• What words refer to a pattern?
pattern, model, prototype, original
• What words refer to the best pattern or example of something?
archetype, epitome, hero, ideal, paragon
• What words refer to something made from a pattern?
image
• What words refer to the size of a model in comparison to the size of the real thing?
scale, full-scale, life-size,
• # 8.3.5.5 Imitate

Use this domain for words related to imitating someone--to do things in the same way as another person.

Louw Nida Codes:
41D Imitate Behavior
• What words refer to imitating someone?
imitate, pattern after, mimic, imitate, copy
• What words refer to doing the same thing?
likewise,
• # 8.3.5.6 Copy

Use this domain for words related to copying something.

• What words refer to copying something?
copy (v), make a copy of, duplicate, photocopy, reduplicate, reproduce, clone, replicate, triplicate,
• What words refer to a copy of something?
copy (n), duplicate, photocopy, duplication, clone, replica, reproduction,
• # 8.3.6 Made of, material

Use this domain for words that mark the material out of which something has been made.

Louw Nida Codes:
89Y Substance
• What words refer to something being made of some material?
• What words refer to something having some material in it?
have something in it, contain,
• What words refer to the material something is made of?
material, composition, stuff, substance,
• What words indicate the material that something is made of?
out of, with, from, of,
• # 8.3.6.1 Strong, brittle

Use this domain for words that describe something that is strong--not easily broken.

Louw Nida Codes:
79M Strong, Weak
• What words describe something that is not easily broken?
strong, strength, tough, substantial
• What words describe something that is easily broken?
brittle, weak, weakness, breakable
• # 8.3.6.2 Hard, firm

Use this domain for words that describe something that is hard--not easily cut, or broken.

• What words describe something that is hard?
hard, adamant, firm, indurate, petrified, concrete, tough
• What words refer to something becoming hard?
harden, set, stiffen up
• What words refer to making something hard?
harden, firm up, petrify, stiffen, toughen
• # 8.3.6.3 Stiff, flexible

Use this domain for words that describe something that is stiff--not easy to bend.

• What words describe something that is not easy to bend?
stiff, strong, inflexible, unbendable, unbending, rigid, brittle, crisp, crispy,
• What words describe something that is easy to bend?
flexible, flexibility, flimsy, pliable, bendable, weak,
• What words refer to something becoming more stiff?
stiffen, rigidify
• # 8.3.6.4 Dense

Use this domain for words describing something that is dense.

• What words describe something that is dense?
dense, thick, compact, consolidated, thickset
• What words refer to making something more dense?
compress, consolidate, consolidation
• What words describe something that is not dense?
thin, porous, spongy, hollow, tenuous, rare
• What words refer to making something less dense?
thin, rarefy
• # 8.3.6.5 Soft, flimsy

Use this domain for words describing something that is soft or flimsy.

Louw Nida Codes:
79U Soft, Tender
• What words describe something that is soft?
soft, flimsy, easily broken, tender
• What words refer to making something soft?
soften
• # 8.3.7 Good

Use this domain for words describing something that is good.

Louw Nida Codes:
88A Goodness
• What words describe a person who is good?
good, fine, excellent, moral, nice, worthy
• What words describe something that is good?
good, nice
• What words describe an action that is good?
well done

Use this domain for words describing something bad.

Louw Nida Codes:
• What words describe something that is bad in quality?
bad, no good, lousy, unpleasant, cheap, severe, terrible, abject, mean, low, base, infamous, ignoble, irregular,
• # 8.3.7.2 Better

Use this domain for words describing something that is better than something else.

• What words describe something that is better than something else?
better, best, surpass, superior
• # 8.3.7.2.1 Worse

Use this domain for words describing something that is worse than something else.

• What words describe something that is worse than something else?
worse, lesser, inferior
• What words refer to something getting worse in condition?
degenerate, deteriorate
• # 8.3.7.3 Perfect

Use this domain for words describing something that is perfect.

Louw Nida Codes:
79C' Perfect
88D Perfect, Perfection
• What words describe something that is perfect?
perfect, flawless
• What words describe something that is not perfect?
imperfect, flawed
• # 8.3.7.4 Mediocre

Use this domain for words describing something that is mediocre.

• What words describe something that is neither good nor bad?
mediocre, average, undistinguished
• # 8.3.7.5 Important

Use this domain for words describing something that is important.

Louw Nida Codes:
65F Important, Unimportant
• What words describe something that is important?
important, main (thing), grand, great, urgent, worthy
• # 8.3.7.5.1 Basic

Use this domain for words describing something that is basic.

• What words describe something that is basic?
basic, fundamental, essential, central
• # 8.3.7.6 Improve

Use this domain for words related to improving something--to make something better.

• What words refer to improving something?
improve, improvement, ameliorate, correct, develop, reform, remedy, renovate, renovation, upgrade,
• What words describe something that has been improved?
improved, corrected,
• # 8.3.7.7 Right, proper

Use this domain for words describing something, such as a tool or way of doing something, that is proper for a particular time, place, purpose, or job. The words in this domain involve a comparison between two things, an item and a setting. An evaluation is made as to how good the item is in the setting. The words may be used only of certain types of items, certain types of settings, or certain types of usefulness.

Louw Nida Codes:
66 Proper, Improper
• What words describe something that is proper?
right, proper, applicable, apposite, apropos, becoming, befitting, correspond, correspondent, corresponding, decent, due, expected, felicitous, germane, meet, opportune, pertinent, pleasing, principled, properly, right-minded, rightful, smart, suitable, suited, timely, well, well-timed,
• What words describe something that is right for a particular job?
right, proper, accepted, approved, appropriate, correct,
• What words refer to something being right for a particular job?
suit, lends itself to, be suited to, be cut out for, be made for, fit the bill, fit in, be right for, be the right person for, make a good/ideal,
• What words refer to something someone does that is right for a particular situation?
right, proper, acceptable, appropriate, apt, correct, fitting, suitable, be the done thing, be the way it's done, in keeping with,
• What words refer to doing something in the right way?
right, properly, correctly, by the book,
• What words refer to the quality of being proper?
suitability, suitableness, fit (n),
• # 8.3.7.7.1 Wrong, unsuitable

Use this domain for words describing something, such as a tool or way of doing something, that is unsuitable for a particular time, place, purpose, or job.

Louw Nida Codes:
66 Proper, Improper
• What words describe something that is unsuitable?
improper, ill-suited, ill-timed, inadmissible, inapt, incongruous, incorrect, indecent, indelicate, malapropos, presumptuous, unacceptable, unapt, unbecoming, unbefitting, undue, unfit, unfitting, unsuited to, untimely, untoward,
• What words refer to something being unsuitable for a particular purpose or situation?
wrong, unsuitable, not suitable, unsuited to, not suited to, inappropriate, not appropriate, hardly the time/place/person,
• What words refer to someone being unsuitable for a job?
unsuitable, not suitable, not be cut out for, wrong, ill-suited to, not suited to,
• What words refer to something being unsuitable because it isn't good enough?
unfit, not fit,
• What words refer to something being unsuitable for a particular place?
be out of place, be out of keeping, not be in keeping, incongruous,
• What words refer to someone being unsuitable for a particular place?
be out of place, misfit,
• # 8.3.7.7.2 Convenient

Use this domain for words describing something that is convenient--a good time to do something.

• What words describe something that is convenient?
convenient, handy, suit, fit in with, be good for, a good time, no trouble, no problem
• What words describe something that is not convenient?
• # 8.3.7.7.3 Compatible

Use this domain for words related to being compatible--words that describe two things or people that can be together or work together without problems or conflict.

• What words describe things that are compatible?
compatible, congruent, congruous, consistent, consonant, suitable, proper, fitting, presentable
• What words refer to things being compatible?
accord, agree, clash, cohere, complement, comport, dovetail, go together, go with, harmonize, jibe, rhyme, square
• What words describe people that are compatible?
compatible,
• What words refer to people being compatible?
work well together, be well-suited, be well-matched, be made for each other, be a perfect match, be a perfect pair, be ideally suited, be right for,
• What words refer to the quality of being compatible?
compatibility, harmony,
• What words describe things or people that are incompatible?
incompatible, ill-matched,
• What words refer to people being incompatible?
not be suited, be wrong for, not be right for, not be someone's type,
• What words refer to the quality of being incompatible?
incompatibility,
• # 8.3.7.8 Decay

Use this domain for words related to something decaying--when a living thing dies and becomes bad, or when a part of a living thing becomes bad.

Louw Nida Codes:
23M Rot, Decay
• What words refer to something decaying?
decay, rot, decompose, perish, fester, mildew, molder, putrefy,
• What words describe something that is decaying?
rotten, decayed, moldy, mildewed, putrid, rotted, carious,
• What words refer to food decaying?
go bad, go off, go stale, go sour, spoil, taint,
• What words describe food that is decaying?
rotten, bad, stale, moldy, sour, rancid, off, tainted,
• What words refer to making something decay?
rot,
• What words refer to the process of decay?
decay (n), corruption, decomposition, putrefaction,
• What words refer to a place on something where it is decaying?
decay (n), rot (n), canker, caries, carrion, dry rot,
• What words refer to something being eaten by insects?
eaten by insects, infested with termites, moth-eaten
• # 8.3.7.8.1 Rust

Use this domain for words related to metal rusting--when metal becomes bad.

• What words refer to metal rusting?
rust, corrode, oxidize, tarnish, rust away,
• What words describe metal that has rusted?
rusty, corroded, tarnished, rusted, eaten away, eaten through,
• What words refer to making metal rust?
corrode, eat away, eat through,
• What words refer to the process of rusting?
corrosion, oxidation,
• What words refer to rust?
rust, tarnish,
• What words describe something that makes metal rust?
corrosive,
• # 8.3.7.8.2 Blemish

Use this domain for words related to a blemish--something small and bad on the skin of a person or the surface of something, but not something serious, especially something wrong that does not affect how something works.

Louw Nida Codes:
79L Blemished, Unblemished
• What words refer to a blemish in something?
blemish, blot, dapple, excrescence, freckle, mole, pimple, speck, speckle, small fault,
• What words describe something that has a blemish on it?
blemished, defaced, marred,
• # 8.3.7.8.3 Garbage

Use this domain for words related to garbage--something that is no longer wanted.

• What words refer to garbage?
garbage, rubbish, trash, litter, refuse, junk, waste, wastepaper, scrap,
• What do people do to garbage?
take out, throw away, discard, burn, chuck, dispose of, disposal, haul away, bury, dump, litter, pile up, collect
• What words refer to a container where people put garbage?
• What words refer to a place where people put garbage?
garbage pit, rubbish heap, garbage dump, rubbish tip, compost pile, incinerator,
• What words refer to a person who removes garbage?
garbage man, dustman
• What words refer to a vehicle used to remove garbage?
garbage truck, dustcart,
• What words refer to a person who leaves garbage in a public place?
litterbug,
• What words describe something made to be used once and then thrown away?
disposable,
• What words refer to bad things that people allow to go into water or air?
pollution, pollute, pollutant, smog, acid rain
• # 8.3.7.8.4 Preserve

Use this domain for words related to preserving the condition of something from decay.

• What words refer to preserving something from decay?
preserve, put up, treat, conserve, maintain, keep up, sustain, take care of,
• What words refer to a method of preserving something?
bottle, can, cure, dry, embalm, freeze, mummify, pickle, refrigerate, salt, smoke, tan,
• What words describe something that has been preserved?
preserved, well-preserved, unspoiled,
• What words refer to something continuing to be in a good condition?
stay fresh, keep well, retain its flavor/appearance,
• What words refer to something used to preserve something?
preservative, salt, formaldehyde, embalming fluid, canning jar,
• What words refer to the process of preserving something?
preservation, embalming, mummification,
• # 8.3.7.9 Value

Use this domain for words related to the value of something.

Louw Nida Codes:
65 Value
65A Valuable, Lacking in Value
65B Worthy, Not Worthy
• What words refer to the value of something?
value, price, worth
• What words refer to evaluating the value of something?
evaluate, evaluation, value (v),
• What words describe something that is valued as good?
good, valuable, worthy, advantageous, important, useful, dear
• What words describe something that is valued as bad?
• What words refer to increasing the value of something?
increase in value, inflate, inflation, appreciate
• What words refer to decreasing the value of something?
decrease in value, debase, degrade, deflate, deflation, depreciate
• # 8.3.8 Decorated

Use this domain for words describing something that is decorated.

OMC Codes:
353 Building Interiors and Arrangement
Interior Decoration and Arrangement
• What words describe something that is decorated?
decorated, adorned, bedecked, bejewelled, decked, embellished, festooned, hung, ornamented, studded,
• What words refer to decorating something?
decorate, adorn, bedeck, deck, embellish, festoon, ornament, gild,
• What words refer to something used to decorate something?
• # 8.3.8.1 Simple, plain

Use this domain for words describing something that is simple or plain.

OMC Codes:
353 Building Interiors and Arrangement
Interior Decoration and Arrangement
• What words describe something that is simple and does not have a lot of decorations?
simple, plain, bare
• # 8.3.8.2 Glory

Use this domain for words describing the appearance of something that has pleasing aspects or inspires awe and wonder in the viewer. For instance, the palace of a king, the home of a rich man, or a temple may be elaborately decorated and be described as glorious or magnificent. Or something in nature such as a sunset or flower may inspire awe and wonder.

Louw Nida Codes:
79E Glorious
• What words describe something that is pleasing and awe inspiring in appearance?
glory, glorious, magnificent, splendor, resplendent, awe inspiring, wonderful, grand, great
• # 8.4 Time

Use this domain for general words related to time, and for words indicating the temporal location of an event.

OMC Codes:
805 Ordering of Time
Louw Nida Codes:
67 Time
• What general words refer to time?
time, temporal
• What words indicate that something is happening at some time?
when, upon, thereupon, then, at, be at, be on, -'s, time
• # 8.4.1 Period of time

Use this domain for words referring to a period of time.

Louw Nida Codes:
67 Units of Time
67H Indefinite Units of Time: Age, Lifetime, Interval, Period
67I Definite Units of Time: Year, Month, Week, Day, Hour
• What general words refer to a period of time?
period, span, while, length of time,
• What words refer to a period of time?
instant, second, minute, hour, hourly, day, week, fortnight, month, season, year, decade, century, turn of the century, lifetime, millennium
• What words refer to a point in time?
point, moment,
• # 8.4.1.1 Calendar

Use this domain for words related to the calendar.

• What words are used for printed displays of the year?
calendar, pocket calendar, wall calendar, daily planner, schedule
• What words are used to refer to a particular day?
date, January 1, 2000, 1-1-00, the first of January 2000
• What words are used of the system of numbering the years?
calendar, Gregorian calendar, Julian calendar, BC (before Christ), AD (ad Domino), Christian era
• # 8.4.1.2 Day

Use this domain for words referring to a day.

• What words refer to a day?
day, whole day, day and night, a day and a night, 24 hour day, 'morning, noon and night'
• What words are used to indicate that something happens every day?
daily, every day, each day
• What words refer to an indefinite day?
someday, one day, a certain day, the other day, some day in the future, one day long ago
• What words indicate that something happens during the whole day?
all day long, the whole day long, the whole day through,
• What words are used for the period of time when the sun is shining?
day (as opposed to night), during the day, daytime, daylight, daylight hours
• # 8.4.1.2.1 Night

Use this domain for words referring to night.

• What words refer to night?
night, nighttime,
• What words refer to this night?
tonight, this night,
• What words refer to the night before this one?
last night,
• What words refer to two nights ago?
two nights ago, the night before last,
• What words refer to the night after this one?
tomorrow night,
• What words indicate that something happens during the night?
at night, during the night, in the night, by night,
• What words are used to indicate that something happens every night?
nightly, every night, each night,
• What words indicate that something happens during the whole night?
all night long, the whole night long,
• # 8.4.1.2.2 Yesterday, today, tomorrow

Use this domain for words referring to days relative to each other.

Louw Nida Codes:
67J Units of Time with Reference to Other Units or Points of Time: Yesterday, Today, Next Day
• What words refer to one day in relation to the days before and after it?
today, yesterday, the day before yesterday, three days ago, tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, three days from now, the day before, the day after
• # 8.4.1.2.3 Time of the day

Use this domain for words referring to a time of the day.

Louw Nida Codes:
67 Points of Time
67D A Point of Time with Reference to Units of Time: Daybreak, Midday, Midnight, Late
• What words refer to a time of the day?
time, hour, watch,
• What words refer to dawn?
dawn, sunrise, daybreak, aurora, cockcrow, dawning, sunup,
• What words refer to the time between dawn and noon?
morning, midmorning, am, antemeridian, ante meridiem, forenoon, matins, morn, early morning
• What words refer to noon?
noon, midday, meridian, midpoint, noonday, noontide, noontime,
• What words refer to the time between noon and sunset?
afternoon, mid afternoon, pm, postmeridian, post meridiem,
• What words refer to sunset?
sunset, sundown, twilight, dusk, nightfall, it gets dark, gloaming,
• What words refer to the time between sunset and when you go to sleep?
evening, early evening, late in the evening, tonight, eventide, vesper, late night,
• What words refer to the time when you go to sleep?
bedtime, time to go to sleep,
• What words refer to midnight?
midnight, the middle of the night, pumpkin hour
• What words refer to the time between midnight and dawn?
late at night, the early hours of the morning (2-4), the small hours, the wee hours of the morning, the first watch, the second watch
• What words refer to the time just before dawn?
just before dawn, hours before dawn, predawn hours, it gets light, foredawn,
• What words refer to the time when you wake up?
time to get up,
• # 8.4.1.3 Week

Use this domain for words related to a week.

• What words refer to a week?
week, this week, last week, next week, the weeks to come
• What words are used to indicate that something happens every week?
weekly, every week, each week
• # 8.4.1.3.1 Days of the week

Use this domain for words referring to the days of the week.

• What are the names of the days of the week?
Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday
• What other terms are used for the days of the week?
first day of the week (Sunday), second day of the week (Monday), midweek (Wednesday), Sabbath (Saturday), the Lord's day (Sunday)
• What words are used to refer to all the days of the week together?
days of the week
• # 8.4.1.4 Month

Use this domain for words referring to a month.

• What words refer to a month?
month, this month, last month, next month, the months to come
• What words are used to indicate that something happens every month?
monthly, every month, each month
• What words refer to a time during the month?
full moon, half moon, new moon,
• # 8.4.1.4.1 Months of the year

Use this domain for words referring to the months of the year.

• What are the names of the months of the year?
January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December
• # 8.4.1.5 Season

Use this domain for words referring to seasons of the year that are related to the time of year, the weather, or times of cultivation.

• What general words refer to a season of the year?
season
• What words refer to a season related to the time of year?
winter, spring, summer, autumn, fall, holiday season, Christmas season, new year, midsummer, midyear,
• What words are used for a part of a school year?
term, semester, trimester, quarter, midterm,
• What words refer to a season related to the weather?
season, rainy season, long rains, short rains, dry season, cold season, hot season
• What words refer to a season related to a time of cultivation?
planting season, growing season, harvest season, hunger season
• # 8.4.1.6 Year

Use this domain for words referring to a year.

• What words refer to a year?
year, this year, last year, next year, the years to come
• What words are used to indicate that something happens every year?
yearly, every year, annually, annual
• # 8.4.1.7 Era

Use this domain for words referring to an era--a very long period of time.

• What words refer to an era?
era, age, epoch, the times, generation, this age, the age to come
• # 8.4.1.8 Special days

Use this domain for words referring to a special day.

OMC Codes:
527 Rest Days and Holidays
528 Vacations
• What words refer to a special day of the year?
holiday, vacation
• What words are used for the days when a person works?
weekday(s) (Monday through Friday), workday, workweek
• What words are used for the days when a person does not work?
weekend, day off, Sabbath, day of rest
• # 8.4.2 Take time

Use this domain for words referring to taking time to do something.

Louw Nida Codes:
67E Duration of Time without Reference to Points or Units of Time: Time, Spend Time, Always, Eternal, Old, Immediately, Young
• What words refer to how people relate to time?
take time, spend time, use time, make time, find time
• # 8.4.2.1 A short time

Use this domain for words referring to a short time.

• What words indicate that something happens for a short time?
take a short time, be for a short time, brief, briefly, briefness
• What words indicate that something happens for a very short time?
moment, instant, point in time, instantaneous, instantaneously
• What words refer to taking a short time to do something?
be brief, be quick,
• What do people say when they want someone to do something in a short time?
be brief, don't take long, get it over with
• # 8.4.2.2 A long time

Use this domain for words referring to a long time.

• What words indicate that something happens for a long time?
take a long time, be for a long time, go long, go over the time allotted, take forever, last a long time, went on forever, kept going and going, lengthy, enduring
• What do people say when they want someone to do something for a long time?
take your time, make it last, we want this to last a long time
• # 8.4.2.3 Forever

Use this domain for words referring to something happening forever.

• What words are used to indicate that an event or state that will continue forever?
forever, always, ever, eternally, incessantly, unceasingly, forever and ever, in perpetuity, for all eternity, for all time
• What words are used to describe something will continue forever?
eternal, infinite, everlasting, constant, perpetual, unending, endless, never-ending, unceasing, ceaseless, incessant, undying, immortal, imperishable, deathless, boundless, indefinite, unlimited, immeasurable, never failing, unfailing, timeless
• What words are used to indicate that something will continue forever?
be forever, last forever, go on forever, always be there, never fail/end/die/stop
• What words are used to refer to all time or a time that will never end?
eternity, infinity, all times
• # 8.4.2.4 Temporary

Use this domain for words referring to something being temporary.

• What words indicate that something will only last for some time and then end?
temporary, transient
• # 8.4.3 Indefinite time

Use this domain for words referring to an indefinite time.

Louw Nida Codes:
67A A Point of Time without Reference to Other Points of Time: Time, Occasion, Ever, Often
• What words refer to an indefinite time?
when, then, sometime, someday, anytime, onetime, whenever, approximate, approximately,
• # 8.4.4 Telling time

Use this domain for words related to telling time.

• What words refer to telling time?
tell time, keep time, mark time, measure time, beat time, register the time, to chronicle
• What is a written record of times and events called?
chronology, chronicle, record, history
• What is a person called who keeps time?
timekeeper
• What words indicate a particular time?
(In written English we use a semicolon to separate the hour from the minute: 5:00.)
• # 8.4.4.1 Plan a time

Use this domain for words referring to planning the time of an event.

• What words refer to planning the time of an event?
plan a time, set a date, schedule something, time something
• What words refer to the time of an event?
time, date, timing
• What words refer to a plan for the time of an event?
schedule, timetable, program
• # 8.4.4.2 Clock, watch

Use this domain for machines that indicate what time it is.

• What words refer to machines for telling time?
timepiece, watch, clock, alarm clock, digital watch, analog watch, electric clock, sundial, pendulum, hourglass
• # 8.4.5 Relative time

Use the domains in this section for words that relate one time to another. Use this domain for words that indicate a temporal relation between situations.

Louw Nida Codes:
67 Points of Time
67B A Point of Time with Reference to Other Points of Time: Before, Long Ago, Now, At the Same Time, When, About, After
• What general words refer to one time in relation to another time?
relative to, in relation to, before or after
• # 8.4.5.1 Order, sequence

Use this domain for words referring to temporal order or sequence--the order in which a group of events happen. Things and people may also be in order based on the order in which something happened or should happen to them.

Louw Nida Codes:
61 Sequence
• What words refer to the order or sequence of a group of events?
order, sequence, cycle, pattern, rota, order of events,
• What words refer to a group of events that happen in order?
sequence, series, succession, chain, course, progression,
• What words refer to a group of things in a series?
series, lineup, queue,
• What words describe a group of things that have been put in order?
be in order, ordered, in sequence, be the right way round, in chronological order, chronological, consecutive, consecutively, successive, in succession, one after another, one after the other, (three years) running, sequential,
• What words refer to doing things in order?
in order, take turns,
• What words refer to the particular order in which something comes?
place, position, where something comes,
• What words describe a group of things that have not been put in order?
unordered, out of sequence
• What words describe a group of things in the wrong order?
be out of order, be in the wrong order, be the wrong way round, backwards,
• What words refer to something missing from a group of things in order?
gap
• In English 'Order' can be expressed by a noun phrase with no overt marker.
• In English 'Order' can be expressed by a 'be' clause with the 'Item' in the subject position.
be,
• In English 'Order' can be expressed by a noun phrase with the 'Item' marked by 'of'.
of,
• # 8.4.5.1.1 Series

Use this domain for words related to a series--several things that happen one after another.

• What words refer to a series of things, events, numbers or people?
series, sequence, string of, succession of, stream, train of events, course of,
• What words describe things in a series?
successive, consecutive, alternating, serial,
• What words indicate that someone does things in a series?
in succession, one after the other, one after another, straight, in a row, running, alternate
• What words refer to the place that something has in a series?
• # 8.4.5.1.2 First

Use this domain for words referring to something happening first--to be before all other things in order or time.

• What words describe something that is first in order or time?
first, original, initial, earliest, inaugural, prime,
• What words indicate an event or action that is first?
first (adv), first of all, beginning with, starting with,
• What words indicate that something happened when you first saw something?
at first sight, at first glance
• What words indicate that something is the first in a list of things that you will talk about?
firstly, first of all, to start with, to begin with, in the first place
• What words indicate that something happens or is done for the first time?
first, the first time,
• What words refer to the first time someone does something?
debut, premiere, maiden (voyage),
• What words describe something that has never happened before?
unprecedented, a first,
• What words refer to doing something that has never been done before?
be the first to do something, show the way, lead the way, pioneer, break new ground,
• What words refer to being the first person to do something in a situation instead of waiting for someone else?
make the first move, take the initiative,
• What words refer to the person who did something first?
pioneer, the first,
• What words refer to something that is the first of its kind?
prototype, original (n),
• # 8.4.5.1.3 Next

Use this domain for words referring to something happening next.

• What words indicate that an event happens next?
next, right afterwards, the day after, then,
• What words describe something that happens next?
next, following, ensuing,
• What words refer to an event happening next after another event?
follow, come next, be after, be next, succeed, come after, go after, go next, ensue,
• # 8.4.5.1.4 Last

Use this domain for words referring to something happening last--to happen after all other things in a sequence, or to be the last person or thing in a sequence.

• What words indicate that an event happens last?
• What words describe something that happens last?
• What words refer to an event happening last?
come last, end with, finish with,
• What words indicate that a person or thing is the last in a list or line or group?
be last, come last, finish last, bring up the rear, straggler, be the last straw,
• What words indicate that something is next to the last?
next to the last, the last but one, penultimate,
• What words indicate that something is the last before now?
last (week), latest
• What words do people use to indicate the last thing in a list of things they are talking about?
lastly, finally, last but not least,
• What words refer to the last thing?
the last, the latter,
• What words refer to the last part of something?
end, ending, finish,
• # 8.4.5.1.5 Regular

Use this domain for words referring to something that happens regularly.

OMC Codes:
512 Daily Routine
• What words indicate that something happens regularly?
regular, regularly, at regular intervals, every day, daily, be punctuated by, with great regularity, routine, like clockwork
• What words indicate that something happens sometimes but not regularly?
intermittently, intermittent, on and off, off and on, in fits and starts, sporadic,
• What words indicate that something does not happen regularly?
irregular, without warning
• # 8.4.5.1.6 Alternate

Use this domain for words related to alternating--when several things happen one after another in a repeated pattern.

• What words refer to things alternating?
alternate, repeat, cycle, rotate,
• What words describe things that alternate?
alternating, repeated, cyclical, rotating
• What words indicate that two things alternate?
alternate (actions, events),
• What words refer to two or more people doing something in alternate turns?
alternate, take turns, take it in turns, share, spell each other, go back and forth,
• # 8.4.5.2 Before

Use this domain for words referring to one event happening before another.

Louw Nida Codes:
15O Come/Go Prior To
• What words indicate that something happens before a particular event?
before (conj), prior to, on the eve of, pre-,
• What words indicate that something happens before now or before a particular time?
• What words indicate that someone does something before a particular event?
• What words indicate that something must be done before a particular time?
before, by, not later than, at the latest,
• What words refer to something that happened before?
antecedent, precedent, precedence, the one before,
• What words describe something that happened before?
previous, old, last (adj), earlier, former, prior, preceding, recent, preliminary,
• What words describe a time that comes before another one?
previous (day), last (night), the (week) before, the preceding (year)
• What words indicate that something comes before another in a series?
before, in front of, ahead of,
• What words describe something that comes before another in a series?
previous, preceding, earlier, the one before,
• What words refer to something happening before something else?
come before, precede, predate, lead up to, come first, be before, be a prelude to, anticipate, antedate,
• What words refer to coming before something else in a series?
come before, precede,
• What words refer to doing something before someone else does it?
• What words refer to a person or thing that existed before another?
predecessor, forerunner, precursor, ex-(wife/president),
• What words describe something that has been mentioned before?
above, aforementioned, foregoing,
• # 8.4.5.2.1 After

Use this domain for words referring to one event happening after another.

Louw Nida Codes:
• What words indicate that something happens after a particular time or event?
after, afterward, afterwards, later, later on, subsequently, after that, beyond that, hence,
• What words indicate that something happens after a certain period of time?
after, within, in, from now,
• What words describe something that comes after something else?
next, following, later, subsequent, succeeding, ensuing, after, future, consequent, latter,
• What words refer to something happening after something else?
follow, come after, ensue, follow-up, be after,
• What words refer to the events that happen after an event?
sequel, aftermath, what follows,
• What words refer to a person who takes a job or position after someone else?
successor, next in line, succeed,
• What words refer to a book or film that comes after another one?
sequel,
• What words indicate that something comes after another in a series?
after, next, later, further on,
• What words indicate that something will not be done now, but later?
later, it can wait, it will wait,
• What words are used to link events when telling a story?
and, and then, then, having...-en, after, thereafter, thereon, thereupon, whereupon, upon,
• # 8.4.5.2.2 At the same time

Use this domain for words referring to two things happening at the same time.

Louw Nida Codes:
67G Duration of Time with Reference to Some Unit of Time: During, In, While, Throughout
• What words indicate that two things happen at the same time?
at the same time, together, at one time, at once, simultaneously, at the same instant, in concert, in unison,
• What words indicate that something happens at the same time as something else?
at the same time as, meanwhile, while, as, -ing, simultaneity, concurrently, coincident,
• What words refer to two things happening at the same time?
coincide, clash,
• What words refer to arranging two events so that they happen at the same time?
synchronize, tie something in with,
• What words describe things that happen at the same time?
simultaneous, synchronized, parallel, synchronous, contemporaneous, concurrent,
• What words refer to two people that lived at the same time?
contemporary, be a contemporary of someone, be contemporaries
• # 8.4.5.2.3 During

Use this domain for words indicating that something happened during some time period, or that something happened while something else was happening.

Louw Nida Codes:
67G Duration of Time with Reference to Some Unit of Time: During, In, While, Throughout
• What words indicate that something happened during some time period?
during, in, in the course of, during the course of, through, throughout, over, by day, by night, during the middle of, in the interim, within
• What words indicate that something happened during the time when something else was happening?
while, meanwhile, in the meantime,
• # 8.4.5.3 Right time

Use this domain for words referring to the right time to do something.

• What words refer to the right time to do something?
the right time, a good time, be the time,
• What words describe something happening at the right time?
timely, opportune, well-timed, come at the right time,
• What words refer to a person's ability to choose the right time to do something?
timing, sense of timing,
• What words refer to the wrong time to do something?
the wrong time, a bad time, not a good time, be no time, not be the time,
• What words describe something happening at the wrong time?
badly-timed, ill-timed, come at the wrong time, at a bad time, inopportune,
• # 8.4.5.3.1 Early

Use this domain for words that indicate that something happens early--before the expected time, before the usual time, or before the time that was agreed on. Some words may include the idea that it is good that the event happened early. Other words may include the idea that it is bad that the event happened early.

• What words indicate that something happens early?
• What words describe something that happens early?
• What words refer to something happening early?
be early,
• What words indicate that something happens too early?
too early, too soon, untimely, premature, prematurely, jump the gun,
• What words indicate that something happens early in the morning?
early, first thing, at the crack of dawn, bright and early,
• What words indicate that something will happen no earlier than a particular time?
at the earliest, no earlier than,
• # 8.4.5.3.2 On time

Use this domain for words describing something happening on time--at the expected time, at the usual time, or at the time that was agreed on.

• What words indicate that something happens on time?
on time, right on time, punctually, promptly, on cue, on the dot, at the right time, at the designated time, at the appointed time, when expected, right when it was supposed to happen, at the exact moment,
• What words describe something that happens on time?
timely,
• What words describe someone who does things on time?
punctual, prompt,
• What words indicate that something happens before it is too late?
in time, just in time, in the nick of time, not a moment too soon, at the last minute, at the eleventh hour, catch, cut it fine, cut it too close, made it in by a whisker, just under the wire,
• What words refer to finishing something within the time that is allowed?
• # 8.4.5.3.3 Late

Use this domain for words describing something happening late--after the expected time, after the usual time, or after the time that was agreed on.

• What words indicate that something happens late?
late (adv), not on time, lateness (of the hour), late in life,
• What words describe something that happens late?
• What words describe someone who is late?
tardy, latecomer,
• What do people say to someone who is late?
about time too, what time do you call this? where have you been? better late than never
• What words refer to being late to pay back a loan?
be behind with, overdue, be in arrears,
• What words indicate that something happens late at night?
last thing at night, in the middle of the night, the early hours, till all hours,
• What words refer to not finishing something within the time that is allowed?
be behind, be behind schedule, be running late, overrun,
• What words indicate that something is too late?
too late, it's a little late in the day, leave it a bit late, miss,
• What words indicate that something will happen no later than a particular time?
no later than, at the latest,
• # 8.4.5.3.4 Delay

Use this domain for words referring to something delaying someone or something--to cause something to happen at a later time, cause someone to do something at a later time, or cause someone or something to be late.

• What words refer to something delaying someone?
delay, make someone late, hold someone up, keep, detain,
• What words refer to something delaying an event?
delay, hold something up, set back, put back, get bogged down
• What words refer to an instance of delaying something?
delay (n), hold-up,
• What words refer to deliberately delaying someone in order to accomplish something?
stall, play for time, delaying tactics,
• # 8.4.5.3.5 Postpone

Use this domain for words referring to postponing something--to decide to do something later.

• What words refer to postponing something?
postpone, put off, delay, reschedule, be put back, defer, table (v),
• What words refer to postponing something because you are lazy?
put off, procrastinate,
• What do people say when they postpone doing something?
• # 8.4.6 Aspectual time

Use this domain for words referring to a time period that is part of a longer time period.

Louw Nida Codes:
68 Aspect
67 Duration of Time
67F Duration of Time with Reference to Some Point of Time: Until, Delay, Still, From
• What general words refer to part of a longer time period?
phase, aspect,
• # 8.4.6.1 Start something

Use this domain for words referring to starting something, or for something beginning to happen.

Louw Nida Codes:
68A Begin, Start
• What words refer to starting something?
start, launch, open, initiate, set in motion, get things moving, start the ball rolling, begin,
• What words refer to officially starting something such as a new law or way of doing something?
introduce, bring in, phase in,
• What words refer to starting an organization?
start, start up, open, set up, establish, found, inception,
• What words refer to something starting a natural process?
start, activate, set off,
• What words refer to starting something again after it has stopped?
restart, bring back, reintroduce, revive, restore, resurrect,
• # 8.4.6.1.1 Beginning

Use this domain for words referring to something beginning to happen, to beginning to do something, to cause something to start happening, or to cause people to start doing something.

• What words are used to indicate that something has begun?
begin, start, commence, initiate, to institute,
• What words refer to the time when something begins?
beginning, the start, commencement, inception, at first, initially, originally,
• What do people say when they want someone else to start?
go, dig in, have at it, let's go, let's do it, move it, let's get going, "on your marks, get set, go", "ready, set, go"
• What is a person called who starts something?
initiator, founder, originator, starter
• What words indicate that some state has begun?
achieve, appear, arrive, attain,
• # 8.4.6.1.2 Stop something

Use this domain for words related to the end of an action or situation.

• What words (intransitive verbs) indicate that something has ended?
stop, come to rest, halt, come to a screeching halt
• What words (transitive verbs) indicate that someone is stopping something?
end (something), stop (something), stanch (flow of blood), obstruct (justice), arrest (progress), halt (traffic), impede (progress), inhibit (flow), delay (someone/event), hold up (traffic), detain (someone), discontinue (product), suspend (action), terminate (someone's life), conclude (story), cease (hostilities), desist from (doing something), bring closure to (something), curtail,
• What words refer to the event of stopping?
halt, standstill, pause, discontinuance, stoppage, stay, closure
• Where do things typically stop?
stopping place, station
• What things are used to stop things?
brake, catch, skid
• What do people say when they want someone to stop?
Halt! Stay! Cease and desist! Belay that order! Avast!
• What words describe something that you can't stop doing?
compulsive,
• What words indicate that some state has ended?
cease, finish, stop,
• What words refer to something stopping gradually?
fade away, wear off, go away, die away,
• # 8.4.6.1.3 End

Use this domain for words referring to the end of an action or situation.

Louw Nida Codes:
67C A Point of Time with Reference to Duration of Time: Beginning, End
• What words refer to the end of something?
end, finish, conclusion, consummation, culmination, denouement, expiration, finale, homestretch, last, outcome, termination, terminus, terminal, conclusion, time is up, that is all,
• # 8.4.6.1.4 Until

Use this domain for words that indicate that something will continue to happen until a particular time or until something else happens, and then it will stop.

• What words indicate that something will happen until something else happens?
(In written English a hyphen is used to indicate that something happens from one time until another time, as in "8:00-5:00" or "Monday-Friday".)
• What words indicate that something will not happen until something else happens?
until, wait until,
• # 8.4.6.1.5 Since, from

Use this domain for words that indicate that something will start to happen at some time and continue for some time.

• What words indicate that something starts to happen after a particular time and then continues?
starting, from, as from, after that,
• What words indicate that something started in the past and continued until now?
since, ever since, for, from, starting from, from that time on, thereafter,
• What words indicate that something starts to happen now and will continue?
from now on, from this time forward, starting now, starting from now, effective immediately, henceforth,
• What words indicate that something will start in the future and continue?
from then on, starting then,
• # 8.4.6.2 Past

Use this domain for words referring to the past or to a time in the past.

• What words refer to the past?
past, before, in the past, in years gone by, in the times of our fathers, in our father's/grandparent's/ancestor's time, was (being/doing/happening), lately
• What words describe something that existed or happened in the past?
earlier, foregoing,
• What words describe something that existed or happened long ago?
the distant past, long ago,
• # 8.4.6.2.1 Recently

Use this domain for words indicating that something happened recently--a short time before now.

• What words indicate that an event happened a short time ago?
recently, not long ago, a short time ago, newly, freshly, a little while back, a short while ago, a little while ago,
• What words indicate that an event happened a very short time ago?
just, only just, a moment ago, a minute ago, just this minute, barely, scarcely, hardly,
• What words indicate that something has been happening up until now?
recently, lately, in recent weeks/months, in the last/past few weeks/months, for the last/past few weeks/months,
• What words describe an event that has happened recently?
recent, latest,
• What words describe news of something that happened recently?
latest, up-to-date, up-to-the-minute,
• # 8.4.6.3 Present

Use this domain for words referring to the present time.

• What words refer to the present?
present, now, right now, is (being/doing/happening), the present day, today,
• # 8.4.6.3.1 Now

Use this domain for words referring to now.

• What words indicate that a situation exists now?
now, right now, nowadays, at this time, at the present time, currently, already,
• What words describe a situation that exists now?
current, present, present-day,
• What do you say when you want someone to start doing something now?
Go! Now!
• # 8.4.6.4 Future

Use this domain for words referring to the future.

• What words are used to refer to the future?
future (n), soon, in the near future, in the distant future, in our children's time, will (be/do/happen), shall, would
• What words describe something that will exist or happen in the future?
future (adj), coming, forthcoming, upcoming, in the offing,
• # 8.4.6.4.1 Soon

Use this domain for words referring to something happening soon.

• What words indicate that an event will happen soon?
soon, sooner, almost, approach, close, directly, imminence, imminent, impending, near, presently, quickly, shortly, about to, in a little while, not long, won't be long, almost here, just around the corner, in the near future, about to happen, any minute (now), in a minute, in a moment,
• # 8.4.6.4.2 Not yet

Use this domain for words referring to something not happening yet.

• What words indicate that an event has not happened yet?
not yet, not now, still need to wait, it will be awhile (still), it will take some time, not quite here, almost
• # 8.4.6.4.3 Eventually

Use this domain for words referring to something happening eventually.

• What words indicate that something eventually happened?
eventually, in the end, finally, end up, at last, in time
• # 8.4.6.4.4 Immediately

Use this domain for words referring to something happening immediately--without any time passing before it happens.

Louw Nida Codes:
68G Rapidity, Suddenness
• What words indicate that someone does something immediately?
immediate, right away, in no time at all
• What words indicate that something happened immediately?
immediately, instantly, this instant, sudden, suddenly, right away, right now, at once, without any time going by, without delay, no sooner,
• What words describe something that happens immediately?
immediate, instant, instantaneous,
• What words indicate that someone does something immediately without thinking about it?
then and there,
• # 8.4.6.5 Age

Use this domain for words referring to the age of something.

Louw Nida Codes:
58K New, Old
• What words refer to the age of something?
age, how old,
• What words are used to say how old someone is?
be (ten), be (ten) years old, be (ten) years of age, aged (ten), (a boy) of (ten), (ten)-year-old, have turned (ten),
• What words are used to say how old something is?
be (ten) years old, (ten)-year-old,
• What words describe something that is the same age as something else?
the same age,
• What words refer to all the people of the same age?
generation, age group, the under-(ten)s, the over-(ten)s
• What words refer to finding out how old something is?
date (v), establish the date of, determine the age of
• # 8.4.6.5.1 Young

Use this domain for words describing something young--a word describing a living thing that has only existed for a short time.

• What words describe a person or animal that is young?
young, little, small,
• What words describe someone who is younger than someone else?
younger, junior,
• What words refer to a younger brother or sister?
younger brother, younger sister, little brother, little sister, kid brother, kid sister,
• What words describe a plant that is young?
green, immature, young,
• What words describe someone who looks or acts young?
youthful, well-preserved,
• # 8.4.6.5.2 Old, not young

Use this domain for words describing something old--a word describing a living thing that has existed for a long time.

• What words describe a person or animal that is old?
old, elderly, aged, aging, ancient, be getting on, not be as young as you were, patriarchal, senior,
• What words describe a plant that is old?
old, mature,
• What words describe someone who is older than someone else?
older, elder,
• What words describe someone who is older than everyone else?
oldest, eldest,
• What words refer to being almost a particular age?
be pushing, be getting on for,
• # 8.4.6.5.3 New

Use this domain for words describing something new--a word describing something that has only existed for a short time.

Louw Nida Codes:
58K New, Old
• What words describe something that is new?
new, newness, newly, modern, state-of-the-art, untrodden, up-to-date,
• What words describe something that has just been made?
new, brand new, fresh,
• What words describe food that is new?
fresh, raw,
• What words describe something that has been sold for only a short time?
new, brand new, recent, latest, be just out, be hot off the press,
• What words describe an organization that has existed for a short time?
new, young,
• What words describe something that has just been discovered?
new, newly discovered, fresh,
• What words describe an experience or feeling that you have never had before?
new, newfound,
• What words describe a new idea or way of doing something?
new, new-fangled, avant-garde, contemporary, forward-looking, fresh, futuristic, go-ahead, be in its infancy, innovative, inventive, modern, ultra-modern, move with the times, novel, original, originality, pioneering, present-day, progressive, revolutionary, up-to-date, up-to-the-minute, ahead of your time,
• What words describe someone who has recently arrived in a place or just started a new job?
new, newcomer, new arrival, be new to, fresh, green, stranger,
• What words describe something or someone that has recently replaced the one before it?
new, fresh,
• What words refer to changing something that is old, so that it is like new?
renew, renewal, freshen, modernize, modernization, recondition, reconditioning, refresh, refurbish, refurbishing, rejuvenate, rejuvenation, renovate, restore, update, bring something up to date,
• What words describe something that is old, but has been made to look new?
as good as new, renewed, freshened, modernized, reconditioned, refreshed, refurbished, rejuvenated, renovated, restored,
• What words refer to something that is new?
novelty, innovation, latest, original,
• # 8.4.6.5.4 Old, not new

Use this domain for words describing something old--a word describing something that has existed for a long time.

Louw Nida Codes:
58K New, Old
• What words describe something that is old?
old, older, oldest, dated, late,
• What words describe something that is very old?
age-old, be as old as the hills, ancestral, ancient, be around from time immemorial,
• What words describe something that is old and belongs to an early period of history?
primeval, antediluvian, mediaeval, primordial,
• What words describe something that is old and good?
antique, classical, time-honored, vintage,
• What words describe something that is old and not good?
crumbling, declining, decrepit, dowdy, effete, faded, past its prime, rusty, worn out,
• What words describe something that has been used and is no longer new?
old, used, second hand, worn, time-worn,
• What words describe food that is old?
stale, decayed,
• What words describe an organization that has existed for a long time?
old, has a long history,
• What words describe something that people have known about for a long time?
old hat,
• What words describe an experience or feeling that you have had before?
familiar,
• What words describe someone who has been in a place for a long time or has worked at a job for a long time?
old-timer, old hand, no stranger (to these parts),
• What words refer to something being older than other things like it?
outgrow, outlive, outwear,
• What words describe something or someone that has been replaced by a new one?
old, former,
• What words refer to changing something that is new, so that it looks like it is old?
antique (v), antiquate, give something an antique look,
• What words refer to something that is old?
antique, antiquities,
• # 8.4.6.5.5 Modern

Use this domain for words describing something modern--a word that describes something like a machine, system, or country that uses the most recent equipment, ideas, and methods.

• What words describe a modern machine or system?
modern, up-to-date, advanced, sophisticated, high-tech, state-of-the-art, be ahead of its time, at the leading edge of, at the cutting edge of,
• What words describe a modern country?
• What words describe a modern person or organization?
progressive, innovative, forward-looking, move with the times, go-ahead,
• What words describe modern art, literature, or music?
contemporary, avant-garde, futuristic,
• What words refer to changing something to make it modern?
modernize, bring something up to date, update,
• # 8.4.6.5.6 Old fashioned

Use this domain for words describing something old fashioned--something that was done or used in the past, but not done or used now.

• What words describe something that is old fashioned?
old-fashioned, unfashionable, antiquated, archaic, outdated, out of date, outmoded, outworn,
• What words describe something that is old fashioned and no longer used?
antiquated, dated, fusty, early type/form of, obsolete, primitive,
• What words describe an old fashioned idea or way of doing something?
• What words describe something that is so old fashioned that people think it is stupid?
medieval, out of the ark, dinosaur, anachronism, archaic,
• What words describe something that is old fashioned but people still like it?
quaint, old-time, of the old school, olde worlde,
• What words refer to something becoming old fashioned?
be on the way out, fall into disuse,
• What words refer to making something old fashioned by doing the same thing a new way?
antiquate, render obsolete,
• What words describe someone who is old fashioned in the way they think or act?
old fashioned, be behind the times, be living in the past, reactionary, straitlaced,
• What words refer to someone who is old fashioned?
fuddy-duddy, old fogy, old guard, traditionalist,
• # 8.4.6.6 Once

Use this domain for words referring to something happening once.

• What words indicate that an event has happened once?
once, one time, on one occasion, at one stage, at one point, one day
• # 8.4.6.6.1 Again

Use this domain for words referring to something happening again or doing something again.

• What words indicate that an event happens again?
again, once again, once more, yet again, one more time, afresh, fresh, another time, another time
• What words refer to doing something again?
do something again, repeat, redo, over, all over again,
• What words refer to starting to do something again that you had been doing before?
return to, go back to, get back to, resume, resumption, bring back, revive, revival,
• What words refer to having to start something again from the very beginning?
back to square one, make a fresh start,
• What words refer to being back to the same situation that you were in before?
again, once more,
• What words refer to taking an examination again?
retake, resit,
• What words refer to something you do again?
repetition,
• What words indicate that something is done many times?
repeated, repeatedly, recurrent, recurring, repetitive, again and again, over and over again, always, never stop,
• # 8.4.6.6.2 Sometimes

Use this domain for words referring to something happening sometimes.

• What words indicate that an event happens sometimes?
sometimes, occasionally, every so often, once in a while, at times, now and again, now and then, from time to time
• What words describe something that happens sometimes?
occasional, the odd, periodic, intermittent, casual
• # 8.4.6.6.3 Often

Use this domain for words referring to something happening often--happening or done many times.

• What words indicate how often something happens?
how often, how many times, the number of times, frequency,
• What words describe something that happens often?
frequent, repeated, habitual,
• What words indicate that something does not happen often?
rarely, infrequently,
• What words describe something that does not happen often?
rare, infrequent,
• What words refer to something happening more often?
increasingly,
• # 8.4.6.6.4 All the time

Use this domain for words referring to something happening all the time.

• What words indicate that something happens or a situation exists all the time?
all the time, always, constantly, permanently, permanent
• What words indicate that a situation exists during a time period?
throughout, all through, the whole time, all day, all week, from start to finish
• # 8.4.6.6.5 Every time

Use this domain for words referring to something happening every time something else happens.

• What words indicate that something always happens?
always, habitually
• What words indicate that when one thing happens something else always happens?
every time, whenever
• What words indicate that something happens every day or week?
every (day),
• # 8.4.6.6.6 Never

Use this domain for words that indicate that something that never happens, or that something has not once happened.

• What words indicate that something that never happens?
never, not ever, never once, not once, never for a moment, not for a moment, never ever, at no time, not in a million years, never in a million years, have never been known to do something,
• # 8.4.7 Continue, persevere

Use this domain for words referring to continuing to do something.

Louw Nida Codes:
68B Continue
• What words refer to continuing to do something?
continue (doing something), remain at (something), keep on (doing something), stay at (it), stick to (it), hold on, keep (going), keep at (it), stick-to-itiveness, sustain,
• What words indicate that something is continuing?
continuity, continual, continuous, to last (for a long time), endure, enduring, lasting, continuing, remain, perpetual, durable, rest, retain, stand, endless,
• What words refer to continuing to do something without waiting?
• What words refer to something that continues?
continuum,
• # 8.4.7.1 Interrupt

Use this domain for words referring to interrupting someone--speaking when someone is speaking, or doing something to stop someone from doing what they are doing.

• What words refer to interrupting someone or something that is happening?
interrupt, break in, stop, butt in, interruption, intermission, interlude
• What words are used to describe something that is not interrupted?
incessant, uninterrupted
• # 8.4.7.2 Start again

Use this domain for words referring to starting to do something after stopping for some time.

• What words refer to continue doing something after stopping?
continue, start again, resume, get on with, get around to
• # 8.4.7.3 Interval

Use this domain for words referring to an interval between two events.

OMC Codes:
209 Proxemics
• What words refer to the time period between events?
interval, space things out
• # 8.4.8 Speed

Use this domain for words referring to the speed at which a person acts or the speed at which something happens.

Louw Nida Codes:
68G Rapidity, Suddenness
• What words refer to the speed at which a person acts?
speed, velocity, pace
• What words are used to indicate the speed of something?
• # 8.4.8.1 Quick

Use this domain for words referring to doing something at a quick speed or something happening quickly.

• What words describe an action that is done quickly?
fast, quick, quickly, quickness, speedy, speeding, speedily, speed, hasty, hastily, haste, rapid, rapidly, rapidity, hurry, hurried, hurriedly, in a hurry, swift, swiftly, swiftness, rush, rush into, rush through, in a rush, express
• What words describe an action that is done extremely quickly?
at light speed, faster than a speeding bullet, just a blur
• What words describe something that happens quickly?
happen so fast, in the twinkling of an eye, came and went so quickly, it was all over in a minute
• What words refer to doing something quickly?
to speed, move fast, hurry, hasten, be brief
• What words refer to causing someone to do something quickly?
hurry (someone), rush (someone)
• What do you say to someone when you want him to hurry?
Hurry up! Move it! Let's go, let's go! Quick! Faster! Speed it up! Get a move on! Giddy up! (horse)
• # 8.4.8.2 Slow

Use this domain for words referring to doing something at a slow speed.

• What words describe an action that is done slowly?
slow, slowly, leisurely
• What words describe an action that is done extremely slowly?
excruciatingly slow, move at a snail's pace, gradual, gradually, little by little, bit-by-bit, glacial
• What words refer to doing something slowly?
go slow, slowness, take your time (over)
• What words refer to causing someone to do something slowly?
slow (someone) down, hold back, restrain, delay, hold up
• What do you say to someone when you want him to do something slowly?
Slow down! Take it easy! Take your time! Whoa! (horse)
• # 8.4.8.3 Sudden

Use this domain for words referring to a sudden event--something happens that I don't expect.

Louw Nida Codes:
68G Rapidity, Suddenness
• What words refer to moving suddenly?
move suddenly, sudden movement
• What words are used to indicate that an event is sudden?
sudden (warning), all of a sudden, abrupt
• What words are used to indicate that something happened suddenly?
suddenly, abruptly, without warning, without notice
• What words refer to the suddenness of something?
suddenness
• # 8.5 Location

Use this domain for words that refer to the place where something is located and for words indicating the location of something.

OMC Codes:
131 Location
Louw Nida Codes:
83 Spatial Positions
83B Where, Somewhere, Everywhere
• What words refer to the location of something?
location, position, place, venue, at, spot
• What words indicate that something is located somewhere?
be at, at, be, be located, location
• # 8.5.1 Here, there

Use this domain for words that refer to a place in relation to the speaker or listener.

Louw Nida Codes:
83A Here, There
• What words refer to a place near the speaker?
here, hereabouts, hither, in this place, on this very spot, around here
• What words refer to a place near the listener?
• What words refer to a place that is not near the speaker or the listener?
over there, elsewhere, yon, yonder
• # 8.5.1.1 In front of

Use this domain for words referring to being in front of you.

Louw Nida Codes:
83F In Front Of, Face To Face, In Back Of, Behind
• What words indicate that something is in front of something else?
front, in front, in the front, up front, forward, in the foreground, be in front, out in front, before, ahead of,
• What words refer to the front of a line of people or vehicles?
the front,
• What words refer to being at the front of a line?
• What words indicate that something is in front of you?
• What words indicate that two people are in front of each other?
face to face, facing each other
• # 8.5.1.1.1 Behind

Use this domain for words indicating that something is behind you.

• What words indicate that something is in back of something else?
behind, in back, way back, in the rear, background
• # 8.5.1.2 Beside

Use this domain for words that indicate that something is to the side of someone.

Louw Nida Codes:
83E At, Beside, Near, Far
• What words indicate that something is beside something else?
be beside, alongside, along, next to, at your side, be way over to the side, be on the right, be on the left
• # 8.5.1.2.1 Around

Use this domain for words indicating that something is around something else.

Louw Nida Codes:
• What words indicate that something is around something else?
be around, surrounding
• # 8.5.1.2.2 Between

Use this domain for words indicating that something is between two other things.

Louw Nida Codes:
83C Among, Between, In, Inside
• What words indicate that something is between two other things?
between, amid, amidships, amidst, among, amongst, betwixt, center, central, equidistant, half-way, mean, medial, median, medium, mid, middle, middlemost, midst, midway, therein, throughout, within,
• # 8.5.1.3 On

Use this domain for words indicating that something is on another thing.

Louw Nida Codes:
83H On, Upon, On the Surface Of
• What words indicate that something is on something else?
be on, be on top of, topside, upon,
• # 8.5.1.3.1 Above

Use this domain for words that express the idea that something is above another thing. The concept 'above' is inherently relational, expressing the relative positions of two things.

Louw Nida Codes:
83I Above, Below
• What words indicate that something is above something else?
above, higher than, over, overhang, up above, super-, supra-, on high,
• What words describe something that is above something else?
• # 8.5.1.3.2 Under, below

Use this domain for words that express the idea that something is under another thing. The concept 'under' is inherently relational, expressing the relative positions of two things.

• What words indicate that something is under something that is directly above it?
under, underneath, beneath, under-, sub-
• What words indicate that something is in a lower position or on a lower level?
below, beneath, sunken, lower
• What words indicate that something is under a covering (such as clothes, skin, or paint)?
under, underneath, beneath
• What words refer to being under something?
underlay, underlie,
• What words describe something that is under another thing?
underlying, nether,
• # 8.5.1.4 Inside

Use this domain for words indicating that something is outside something else.

Louw Nida Codes:
83C Among, Between, In, Inside
• What words indicate that something is in something else?
be in, inside, inner, within
• # 8.5.1.4.1 Out, outside

Use this domain for words indicating that something is outside of another thing.

Louw Nida Codes:
• What words indicate that something is outside of something else?
be out, outside, outer
• # 8.5.1.5 Touching, contact

Use this domain for words indicating that two things are touching or in contact with each other.

Louw Nida Codes:
83E At, Beside, Near, Far x
• What words refer to two things touching each other?
contact, be in contact, touch, rest against, up against, together, end to end
• What words refer to two things moving until they touch each other?
come into contact, make contact, touch, bump into, come together, brush, skim, graze, meet, connect, butt up against, come to rest against
• What words describe something that is touching another?
• # 8.5.1.5.1 Next to

Use this domain for words indicating that something is next to something else.

Louw Nida Codes:
83E At, Beside, Near, Far x
• What words indicate that something is next to another?
next to, right next to, right up next to, by, beside, neighbor, juxtaposed, nearest
• What words indicate that something is next to something long such as a road?
along, alongside, by the side of, at the side of
• What words indicate that something such as a building or country is next to another?
• What words indicate that two things are next to each other and facing in the same direction?
side by side, abreast
• What words describe something that is next to another?
• # 8.5.1.6 Across

Use this domain for words that refer to a place on another side of something from the reference point. 'Across' involves three things--the object, the reference point, and something else in between the two.

Louw Nida Codes:
83G Opposite, Over Against, Across From, Offshore From
83J Beyond, On the Other Side Of
• What words indicate that something is across from something else?
across, across from, on the other side of, on the opposite side of, beyond, offshore from
• # 8.5.1.7 Indefinite location

Use this domain for words indicating that something is at an indefinite location.

• What words refer to an indefinite location?
somewhere, anywhere, someplace, anyplace, where, here, there, over there, any old place, wherever, who knows where, could be anywhere, undisclosed location, location unknown, here and there, whereabouts, hereabouts, thereabouts
• # 8.5.2 Direction

Use this domain for general words referring to a direction.

Louw Nida Codes:
82 Spatial Orientation
82B Left, Right, Straight Ahead, Opposite
• What words refer to a direction?
direction, orientation, course, way, bearing
• What words refer to facing in some direction?
face (v), point, orient
• What words refer to a person's ability to know what direction he is going in?
sense of direction
• What words indicate that two things are going in the same direction?
with
• What words indicate that two things are going in different directions?
against
• # 8.5.2.1 Forward

Use this domain for words indicating a forward direction.

• What words indicate the direction forward?
• # 8.5.2.2 Backward

Use this domain for words indicating a backward direction.

• What words indicate the direction backward?
back, backward, behind, reverse,
• # 8.5.2.3 Right, left

Use this domain for words referring to right and left.

• What words refer to the right side?
right
• What words refer to the left side?
left
• What words describe a person who usually uses his right hand?
right-handed
• What words describe a person who usually uses his left hand?
left-handed
• # 8.5.2.4 Up

Use this domain for words referring to the direction up.

• What words refer to the direction up?
up, upwards, upward, uphill, upstairs, higher and higher, up and down,
• What words describe something that is facing or pointing upwards?
face-up,
• What words indicate that a path or road goes upward?
go up, climb, rise,
• # 8.5.2.5 Down

Use this domain for words referring to the direction down.

• What words refer to the direction down?
down, downwards, downhill
• # 8.5.2.6 Away from

Use this domain for words indicating a direction away from something.

• What words indicate that something is moving away from something else?
toward, towards, away from, inward, inwards, outward, outwards
• What words indicate that something moves from one place (to another place)?
from,
• # 8.5.2.7 Towards

Use this domain for words indicating a direction toward something.

• What words indicate that something is moving toward something else?
toward, towards, away from, inward, inwards, outward, outwards
• What words indicate that something moves (from one place) to another place?
to,
• # 8.5.2.8 North, south, east, west

Use this domain for words referring to the directions of the compass.

Louw Nida Codes:
82A North, South, East, West
• What general words refer to a direction of the compass?
direction, heading, point of the compass, degree, bearing, cardinal points
• What words refer to a direction of the compass?
north, south, east, west, northeast, northwest, southeast, southwest, northward, southward, eastward, westward, northerly, southerly, westerly, easterly, up north, down south, sunrise, sunset
• What words describe something that is toward one of the directions of the compass?
northern, southern, eastern, western, boreal, austral, oriental, occidental, Midwestern, Fareast
• What words describe something going in one of the directions?
northbound, southbound, eastbound, westbound
• What words describe a person who is from a part of the country that is north, south, east, or west?
northerner, southerner, easterner, westerner
• What words refer to a compass?
compass, needle
• # 8.5.3 Be at a place

Use this domain for words related to being at a place.

Louw Nida Codes:
85A Be in a Place
83E At, Beside, Near, Far
85 Existence in Space
• What words indicate that something or someone is in a particular place?
be at a place/location, be in a place/location, be located, be situated, be localized, attendance, be present, presence, sit, lie, laid, occupy, be resting
• What words indicate that something or someone is in the correct or expected place?
in place, in the proper place, in your place, out of place
• # 8.5.3.1 Absent

Use this domain for words related to being absent--to not be in a particular place, or not be in the correct or expected place.

• What words indicate that something or someone is not in a particular place?
be absent, not be here, not be around, be out, not be in, be away, missing, be off, not be at, not be there, absence, be gone, not present, be away, nowhere to be found, out of sight, truant, absent without leave, AWOL, missing in action, not show up, make yourself scarce, minus someone, be lacking, lose, elsewhere, somewhere else,
• What words refer to a person who is absent?
absentee, truant, missing person, no-show,
• # 8.5.4 Area

Use this domain for words referring to an area.

Louw Nida Codes:
80 Space
80A Space, Place
• What words refer to an area?
area, region, district, expanse (of land)
• # 8.5.4.1 Vicinity

Use this domain for words related to a vicinity--an area around something else.

Louw Nida Codes:
80A Space, Place
• What words refer to the area around something else?
area, vicinity, environs, neighborhood, surroundings, community, district, region, context
• # 8.5.4.2 Occupy an area

Use this domain for words related to occupying an area.

• What words refer to occupying an area?
occupy, occupy an area, take up space, cover an area, fill
• # 8.5.4.3 Space, room

Use this domain for words referring to the amount of empty space that is available to be used.

• What words refer to the amount of empty space that is available to be used?
space, room, clearance, floor space, elbow room,
• What words refer to providing space for someone or something?
make room, clear a space, make way, get out of the way,
• What words describe a situation where there is just enough room?
a tight squeeze, barely enough room, close fit,
• # 8.5.4.4 Interval, space

Use this domain for words related to an interval or space between things.

OMC Codes:
209 Proxemics
• What words refer to the area between things?
space, gap, opening, break, interval, separation, hole,
• What words refer to arranging things with spaces between them?
space out,
• What words indicate that things have spaces between them?
spaced, apart, be spaced out,
• What words indicate that things are arranged with regular spaces in between?
at regular intervals, every meter, evenly spaced,
• # 8.5.5 Spatial relations

Use this domain for words that indicate a spatial relation between situations.

• What words indicate that a situation happened at the same place as another situation?
where, in the same place as, at the same place as
• What words indicate that a situation happened at a different place as another situation?
somewhere else, elsewhere,
• # 8.5.6 Contain

Use this domain for words that express the idea that something contains something.

• What words indicate that something contains something?
have, of, -'s, contain, hold
• In English 'Containership' can be expressed by a clause using the verb 'contain' with the 'Container' in the subject position and the 'Content' in the object position.
• In English 'Containership' can be expressed by a clause using the verb with the 'Container' in the subject position, the 'Content' in the object position, and the 'Container' in a preposition phrase marked by 'in'.
• In English 'Containership' can be expressed by a noun phrase with the 'Container' as the head and the 'Content' marked by 'of'.
• In English 'Containership' can be expressed by a noun phrase with the word 'container' as the head and the 'Content' marked by 'of'.
• In English 'Containership' can be expressed by a noun phrase with the word 'contents' as the head and the 'Container' marked by 'of'.
• In English 'Containership' can be expressed by a possession phrase with the 'Container' in the first position and the word 'contents' in the second position.
• # 8.6 Parts of things

Use this domain for words that refer to a part of something. These words are often based on the parts of a person's body.

• What general words refer to a part of something?
part, piece, section, component, portion, bit
• If something has two sides, what words refer to the other side?
the back, the reverse, the other side, the flip side,
• What words refer to the part of something used to hold it?
handle, grip
• What words refer to the main part of something?
body, chassis
• What words refer to something added to the main part?
• What words refer to a layer of something?
layer, level, stratum, stratified, story, floor, sandwich
• What other words refer to a part of something?
flap, detail, bar, blade, hook, lid, neck, nose, shelf, wheel, longitudinal, projection,
• # 8.6.1 Front

Use this domain for words related to the front part of something.

• What words refer to the front of something?
• What words describe something that is on the front?
• # 8.6.1.1 Back

Use this domain for words related to the back part of something.

• What words refer to the back of something?
back (n), rear, hind end,
• What words describe something that is on the back?
• # 8.6.2 Top

Use this domain for words related to the top part of something.

• What words refer to the top of something?
top (n), topside, summit, peak, pinnacle, cap, head,
• What words describe something that is on the top?
• # 8.6.2.1 Bottom

Use this domain for words related to the bottom part of something.

• What words refer to the bottom of something?
bottom (n), underside, base, breech, foot, foundation, ventral, undersurface,
• What words describe something that is on the bottom?
• # 8.6.3 Side

Use this domain for words related to the side part of something.

• What words refer to the side of something?
side (n), flank, right side, left side,
• What words refer to an area that is on one side of a border or wall
side,
• What words describe something that is on the side?
• # 8.6.4 Inner part

Use this domain for words related to the inside part of something.

• What words refer to the inside part of something?
inside (n), interior, innards, lining, framework,
• What words describe something that is on the inside?
• # 8.6.4.1 Outer part

Use this domain for words related to the outside or surface part of something.

• What words refer to the outside part of something?
outside (n), exterior, surface, cover, covering, skin, shell
• What words describe something that is on the outside?
outside (adj), outer, external, surface, superficial,
• # 8.6.5 Middle

Use this domain for words related to the middle part or center of something.

• What words refer to the middle part of something?
middle (n), center, the heart of, core,
• What words describe something that is in the middle?
• What words indicate that something is in the middle of a thing or area?
in the middle, at the center,
• What words refer to the middle position between two places, times, or amounts?
in the middle, halfway, midway, midpoint,
• # 8.6.6 Edge

Use this domain for words related to the edge of something--the part of something where two sides come together.

• What words refer to the edge of something?
edge (n), border, outskirts, perimeter, margin, periphery, curb
• What words refer to the edge of an area of land?
border, boundary, frontier,
• What words refer to the edge of a cup or plate?
rim, lip, brim,
• What words refer to the edge of a piece of clothing?
hem, fringe,
• What words refer to something put along the edge of something?
frame, edging, skirting,
• What words describe something that is on the edge?